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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Evolutionary Psychology.docx
Chapter 4 Evolutionary Psychology.docx

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York University
PSYC 3420
Irwin Silverman

Chapter 4 Evolutionary Psychology  Challenges of sex and mating:  Women’s strategies for mating:  Some always preferred; resources key  Weavbird too chooses by making the male impress by singing, showing nest  Theoretical background for the evolution of mate preferences: o Parental investment and sexual selection:  Gametes define biological sex  Form with another gamete to form a zygote-i.e. fertilized gamete  Males have smaller, females larger gametes  Men have 12 mill sperm /hr; women 400 ova  Women’s greater initial investment- birth, breastfeeding, lasting up to 4 yrs  Pipefish seahorse, Mormon cricket, Panamanian frog invest more male  Cricket-spermatophore; more discriminating  Females usually go through gestation and fertilization  Selection favoured women who valued their resources and were choosy  Trivers parental investment and sexual selection  1. Sex that invest more will be more discriminating  2. Sex that invests less will be more competitive within o Mate preferences as evolved psychological mechanisms:  Selection would have favored being generous rather than stingy  Choosier women out-reproduced other women who weren’t choosy  Preferences do change, but potential and future are promising  Preferences track critical components  Some attributes weigh more; susceptible to deceit  Content of women mate preferences:  See 4.1 110 copy o Preference for economic resources:  Shrikes gather items put on thorns; females choose larges caches  2 preconditions: resources accruable; men would have to differ from e.o. Page 1 of 8  Men invest in women with provisions to an extent unprecedented by primates  In primates, males and mates rarely share  Women needed cues to signal a man’s possession of the resources; most obvious cue among health, status, and athletics o Preference for good financial prospects:  Women value economic resources more than men  Men rated them as merely desirable  Women 2x as highly as men valuing financial prospects  Us college women indicate min acceptable percentile for husband on earning capacity is 70 percentile; or above 70% of other men; men 40 percentile  Study across cultures- more value on financial prospects 2x as much as men  Nigeriza,Zambia, India, Indonesia, Iran Japan Taiwan Colombia and Venezuela valued finances higher than south Africa Netherlands France  Japan-finances valued 150% more than men; women from Netherlands 36% more than males(less than any other)  Women evolved preferences for resources  Jordan- valued economic ability as well as qualities linked to ability such as status, ambition, ed  Same sex diff found in tribes of folktales  Primary status of wealth in mate preferences  Women chose speed daters of affluent backgrounds  Sweden 3x as men  Women placed preference on intelligence  Finland lit. Shows higher survival rates of $ o Preference for high social status:  Hunter gather societies; big man is the title given  Women desire these ppl; and their children  2.5 rating /3 for occupation success; casual sex .4-1.1  Not limited to capitalism  Status valued 64% more than men in 37 cultures  Viewed as necessity as opposed to luxury Page 2 of 8o Preference for somewhat older men:  Cue to his access of resources  Tiwi abor-very old have power and prestige in mating system  37 cultures preferred older men  Access to resources increase in age, status too  Ecuador-hunting ability most strong predictor of attractiveness  Mans ambition also important o Preference for ambition and industriousness:  More status than the lazy  College women prefer career orientation, industry, ambition  Ppl lacking ambition undesirable; in women viewed neutrally  Cross cultures 26-30% valued more than men o Preference for dependability and stability:  21/37 cultures needed dependability same for both sexes  16/37;women in 15 valued dependability more than men  Across all 37; 2.6/3 ; men rate as 2.5  23/37 cultures women value emotional stability equally; women 2.68; men 2.47  Reliable signals of consistency; lacking dependability and emotional stability provides heavy costs on r.s.  Those men lacking dependability are abusive, jealous, possessive, moodier  Diversion from resources over time  Unpredictability bad for resources too  Better to reap benefits of consistent emotionally stable dependable guys o Preference for height and athletic prowess:  Frogs bump to see their prowess  Primate heritage- sexual domination of force  Females made friendships with males who has prowess for mating access  Athletic prowess signs of protection; cue for women  Muscular and lean ; v shaped torso; broad shoulder to hips; from sound of voice Page 3 of 8  Tall is also good; 80% wanted 6 ft or taller; dominance, education, attractive partners,  Resource acquisition, genes for good health, tall linked with status  Wrestling skills in mehinaku culture o Preference for good health: symmetry and masculinity:  Health adaptive for investment in children; diseases;  Women n men birth averaged 2.28 2.31 respectively  Symmetrical face n body; effected by genetic stressors  Facial symmetry scores higher on physiolofgy,psychology, and emotional health’s  + relationship b.w. facial sym and judgments of attractiveness, partners, sexual relations earlier in life  Fewer respitory illnesses; better disease resistance-some aren’t convinced  Broader lower jaws, strong brow ridges, more cheekbone, testosterone  Women in study-preferred masculine looking faces; modest .35 effect size  Vocal masculinity attractive, signals of good health  Testosterone seen as comprise the immune system  Johnston-health and attractiveness indistinguishable in study  Dominance factor o Love and commitment:  Willingness to commit resources to them and their children  Commitment can’t be directly observed; cues are love  Romantic Europeans invented love ; false  Been around in Alaska and 168 other cultures  Signing of love, emotions, poems found love in 88.5% of of cultures  Acts of love define it-commitment top lists
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