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PSYC 3420 (57)
Chapter 5

Chapter 5 Evolutionary Psychology.docx

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PSYC 3420
Irwin Silverman

Chapter 5 Evolutionary Psychology  Men’s long term mating strategies  Theoretical background for the evolution of men’s preferences: o Why men might benefit from commitment and marriage:  Quality dependent on cues for any attraction, consent for sex, more to choose from, father likelihood-reproductive benefit  Increase in survival of the children; investing father determines death rate  10% or higher in aches tribe w.father  Teaching and political alliances-solve mating problems later in life  Increase in status; not achieved manly until married- more resources for children and mates, coalition o The problem of assessing a woman fertility or reproductive value:  Marry women who could bear children, preferences selected within reproductive value over time  Female chimp is capable of conceiving she’s goes into phase called estrus- releases eggs  Advertised by bright swollen genitals and scents that are attractive  Humans ovulate isn’t accompanied by swelling; sex occurs throughout the cycle  Adaptive problem for males-whose more likely to reproduce-or even capable  Reproductive value- number of children of a given age and sex likely to have in future  I.e. 15 yrs old more value than 30; may defy averages though  Is the average expected future reproduction of a person of a given age and sex  Value-differs from fertility (performance) measure by number of offspring  Women in mid 20=most; peak fertility in mid 20  A 15 younger has higher reproductive value; while a 25 is more fertile in mid 20’s to produce more children on average than teens Page 1 of 10  Qualities were correlated in men’s minds:  Youth and health  Content of men’s mate preferences:  Men like intell, kind, understand , healthy like women, attitudes, beliefs  Different adaption problems; and solutions o Preference for youth:  Reproductive value declines steadily as she move past age 20  By 40 reproductive capacity is low  50 =0  Express desire for younger mates; not western- moko dude-postpubecent  Nigerian, Indian, Iranian, Indonesian all do too  All 37 cultures do; Nigerian wanted 6 yrs younger; Croatia 19 yrs old; chine, Canada, Colombia, desire for younger  Average: 2.5 yrs younger  Study: more attention paid to younger faces attential adhesion  Strength of this preference varies culturally  Scandinavians- 1-2 yrs younger; Nigeria Zambia 6-7 more than 1 wife  Age in Nigeria is important for resources; by that age- prefer younger 6-7 from that success age  Older in polygny systems than monogamous  Mans age affect what they desire; as they age; prefer younger  30-5 yrs; 50-10-20 yrs younger  Perhaps it’s not youth; but reproductive value and fertility  Teens would prefer older women then?  Test: willing to accept younger; but more willing to older  Most attractive-adolescents choosing few yrs older; while they wouldn’t date younger men  Teen males prefer females a few yrs older than selves; but as they grow, men prefer younger increasingly  Perhaps younger are easier to control, less dominant  But youth don’t choose younger! Page 2 of 10  Perhaps based on learning- B.C. women choose older; men then learnt to like younger! Reinforcing!  But teens also prefer younger; while those teen ladies don’t prefer that  Support for evo theory and psych explanation: men desire younger b.c. fertility  Men desire women are increasingly younger as they age  Teen males prefer ladies older that they despite women not rewarding this interest  Age pref of older men is beyond max fertility  Men at 50 orders mid 30; short term- peaking fertility!  Maybe older men have difficulty making a mid 25 marry o 30 may be a compromise and stability vs. instability o Mate homicide rates rises as function of ages discrepancy  Perhaps modern marriage differs from then? o Couples spend more time, companionship rather than hunter gatherers o Importance of similarity and compatibility in modern marriages created a shift in men’s age preferences above the point of peak fertility(30) o Evolved standards of physical beauty:  Beauty is adaptation of the beholder  Observable evidence for reproductive value: 147 5.5.  Physical appearance- lips, skin, smooth, clear eyes, hair, muscle tone, fat distribution, whr  Behaviour bouncy youthful gait, facial expression, energy level, voice  Physical cues health, fertility, and reproductive value  Ill health or old age seen as less attractive universally  Cues of ill health less; poor complexion always a downer  Freedom from disease universally attractive  Essentials- health, hair, teeth sound, smooth skin Page 3 of 10  Length and quality of hair seen as a cue to youth; correlated to own views of health  Skin quality-partial record of lifetime health-absence of parasites, good genes, linked with perceived attractiveness  Homogenous colour good; more skin blood colour-glowing- rouge makeup  Facial feminity-lips, large eyes, thin jaws, small chin, high cheekbones, short distance mouth n jaw  As women age; become less feminine  Higher estrogen links, ovarian hormone linked with fertility  One of most powerful  Voices-high more attractive in women  Symmetry-healthier; link weaker than facial feminity  Facial everageness-more attractive than individual  Ppl have generalized cognitive preference for easy processing-match  Average may be marker for genetic quality  Leg length-relative to torso, cue to health and biochemical efficiency  5% longer viewed as most attractive  Birth sexes like it in women  China-found more offspring with longer legs with low SES backgrounds... o Standards of beauty emerge early in life:  Cultural transmissions and not clear until 3-4  Younger and older gazed at the more attractive; dolls playing time o Standards of beauty are consistent across cultures:  B.w. racial groups .93; western media didn’t affect o Beauty and the brain:  Fmri-identify reward value of different images in attractiveness  Nucleus accumbens when looking at females- circuitry-pleasure centre  This fails to be activated when looking at males  Adaptation psychologically and behaviourally o Body fat WHR and BMI:  Slim vs. plump, linked to social status Page 4 of 10 Where food is scarce; plump is in  Even in hard times ppl want fatter  Reversed in west cultures- context dependent  Study: women selected figure that was slimmer than average; men chose actual average  Us women think men want them slimmer, when avg is fine  WHR-before puberty same fat distribution .85-.95  Men lose but n thighs; women deposit in lower trunk hip n thighs o 40% greater than men  Lower whr than men’s develop  Healthy reproductive women have whr .67-.80;  Healthy men have whr of .85-.95  Accurate indicator if reproductiveness  Lower ratios show earlier preg; long term health status o Diabetes, hyper, heart attacks, stroke, gall, linked to distribution of fat as reflecting the ratio rather than whole amount of fat  Low whr large breasts-26% high ovarian hormone oestradiol o E2- predictor of fertility and reproductive success o Reliable cue for ancestors preferences  Whr low-more attractive than thin or more than average  Whr of .7 more than .8 more than .9  Whr at .7 won playboy/beauty contest  Escorts .7;by touch; low whr even without vision  Regardless of breast size; low whr most attractive  Higher average whr than in western; lower than local average is attractive  Less disparity b.w. hadza tribe than US for actual whr of real women  Short term sexual stra
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