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Chapter 7

Chapter 7 Evolutionary Psychology.doc

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York University
PSYC 3420
Irwin Silverman

Chapter 7 evolutionary psychology • Challenges of parenting and kinship • Problems of parenting: o Sheper tiger- women on kibbutz; strong preferences; own children live with them; men tried to veto, o Offspring vehicles for parents; means to genes transference o Natural selection favored gene survival o Survival, thriving, mating success, however- many don’t engage in care at all o Very costly thing; not universal then; reproductive benefits must outweigh the others o Mexican bats do this; genetic recognition among other bats in caves o Tinbergen-nesting birds  Eggshell removal for safety; protected new chicks from edges; nest less noticeable  Only protector of predator was the increased for survival tactic as the cost outweighed the benefits of increased predation o No parental motivation is spoken of in human psych; very rare if… o Love is remarkable and unclear; far from unconditional • Why do mother provide more parental care than fathers:  Alcock-father did nothing to protect; women do show more touch, love, contact, care o The paternity uncertainty hypothesis:  Mothers are certain of genetic contribution, 50% genes  Males unsure, and doubt, some other guy may have fertilized  Uncertainty –strongest in internal female fertilization-insects, human, mammals  Too costly to spend on children for men o The mating opportunity cost hypothesis:  Mating opportunity costs missed additional mating as result of effort devoted to offspring; no new mates 1  Higher for females; hence less parental care from males  Male care should be rare when costs of missing new mates for males is high  Fish males guard territory and eggs  In a surplus of males in mating pool; less likely a short term mating strategy; many women in the pool; short term popular • Attractiveness and city life help determine this • Evolutionary perspective on parental care: o Selection will favor adaptation for parental care o Parental favoritism-parental care mechanisms favor some offspring over other o Evolved mechanism should be sensitive to 3 contexts:  1. Genetic relatedness of offspring- are they really yours  2. Ability of offspring to convert parental care into fitness-will it help?  3. Alternative uses of resources that might be available to invest in offspring-better to help my nephew or find new mate?? o Genetic relatedness to offspring:  Genetic tests can cause care reversal  Substitute parents will simply care less; invest less  Stepparents-53% stepfathers/25% stepmothers=claimed to have parental feelings to step children  Stepfather interaction were more aggressive, less frequent  Stepchildren found it more unpleasant and leave earlier than genetic children  Webster- stepmom=fathers next marriage; less care to children  Even cultural shows have stepmom killing stepchildren  Social scientists say this is of myth and irrational  Fathers- resemblance/ sexual fidelity= 2 keys he has to determine… o Who are newborn babies said to resemble:  Say it resembles father to enhance care… 2  Show 4x more likely than women =80% to 20% resemblances  Relatives how 66% bias to father look alike  Most likely to say this when father in room  Bias doesn’t reflect actual; don’t resemble them any more than they do  Women much less affected by child’s resemblance to selves  Fmri-men more cortical activity when resembling children there; more neural activation in left front cortex; evolved adaptations!  Father who perceive resemblance are given more attn., school help  Invest more in children when unsuspecting wife  Men who rated them not resembling-more injuries on their partners=cue perhaps o Parents investment in children:  1. Men will allocate more to genetic children than step children  2. Men who are uncertain will invest less  3. Men invest more when mother is current mate  ½=evolutionary theory; 3= use parental care as form of mating effort  69% received money for college; 13,000 avg; and 44% paid college expenses  Prediction 1.supported all 3 predictions! 5.5 x likely if genetic child to get $; 15,000 more; 65% more expenses paid for  Prediction 2.less paternity certainty- 13% to receive money at all for college; 28,000 less;  Prediction 3. 3x likely if child’s mother was their girl in college; 15,00 more; 53% costs paid for\  All 3 prediction were supported  Men with low paternity confidence-less time with putative children, less in their edu too  Mother facial resemblance has nothing to do with closeness unlike males  More care and attachment to children hey can recognize and smell 3  Marlow- not one stepfather directly played with stepchild o Child abuse and other risks of not living with both parents:  Continuum-self sacrifice to abuse  Inclusive fitness theory shows genetic relatedness to child would be predictor of infanticide: higher probability if not alike • 1 parent 1 step=40x likely to be abused, increase in poverty and ses; roughly same across board o Child homicide as a function of genetic relatedness to offspring:  Higher for steps than genetics, 40-100x higher for stepchildren than children with real genes  Cross cultural data sparse; some societies murder children for adultery o Sex differences in parenting adaptations:  Primary caretaker hypothesis contends women evolved adaptation increase survival odds; women view children more; peaked in childhood; attraction to infants=experience  Women better at recognizing infant facial expression of emotion; faster reaction times to see emotions +/-  Sex diff largest for negative emotions  2 hypes:  Attachment promotion hyp-women should decode better all expressions in infants  Fitness threat hypothesis-special sensitivity to dangers that may show negative emotions; combo best?  Women tend and befriend to promote survival; affiliate under stress more • Offspring’s ability to convert parental care into reproductive success:  Selection would favor this  Yet parents would show care for all; not based on children  Makes difference to their social wellbeing, however causal attributions are ambiguous 4  Fathers investment more variable; make a difference to the survival and social wellbeing of children  1. Abnormality 2. Age of child= predict that… o Parental neglect and abuse of children with congenital abnormalities:  Lower in repro success; 12% f all institutionalized were never visited\22% one a yr.===consistent with hypothesis  7.5% to 60% more abuse in congenital physical abnormalities o Maternal care based on the health of child:  Twins shows, according to healthy baby hypothesis= 4 mos. Old showed 50% mothers showed more love to healthier infants; other half showed no preference  8 mos.-more to healthier children with no reversals;  Suggest mother direct more maternal investment to infants who are of higher reproductive value  Dependent on own level of resources as low predicted less investment in high risk infants and more in low risk infants  More resources= more to high risk infants o Age of the child:  Repro value-increases; some % of children show die dragging the value down  This age de
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