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Chapter 9

Chapter 9 evolutionary psychology.doc

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PSYC 3420
Irwin Silverman

Chapter 9 evolutionary psychology • Problems of group living: • Cooperative alliances: • Evolution of cooperation: o The problem of altruism:  Some is due to inclusive fitness, but not your friends  Any cost is a loss to you  Social exchange occurs across cultures resembling evolving human histories  Even species far moved from humans display this-vampire bats  Primates use reciprocal exchanges • Theory of reciprocal altruism:  Adaptations for friends can evolve as long as it is reciprocated in future  Psych mechanisms and reciprocal altruism outlive ppl who don’t use these r.s.  Ensuring benefits reciprocated –problem of cheating— o Tit for tat:  Prisoners dilemma-rat on(police incentive) or both go free(no evidence)  Most rational choice would be to both confess; worst outcome…  Cooperation b.w. Two mates would be best for both  Each can gain from coop, but tempted by police, worst is defects…  Tit for tat-200 round of prisoner’s dilemma; points…  Coop first, reciprocate thereafter  1.never be first to rat out defect; 2. Retaliate only after defect 3. Be forgiving if cooperating • Box 9.1 strategies for promoting cooperation: o Axelrod-enlarge shadow of future-frequent interactions for reciprocity Opportunities o Teach reciprocity-oneself becomes more cooperative; more coop ppl less benefit in being a rat o Insist on no more than equity-greed bad; coop better o Respond quickly to provocation-retaliate immediately and strongly o Cultivate personal rep as reciprocator- shows others, helps all • Cooperation among nonhumans: o Food sharing in vampire bats:  Blood source of food; ales leave when independent; nocturnal  Ability to get blood increases in age/experience; 33% under s yrs. Failed on a certain night, while 7% of older failed to feed  3 days to die w/o blood; regurgitate to give others; have friends who reciprocate;  More association, more likely to share; 60% of the time around= received from compatriot; if not around often=no sharing  Friends regurgitated more when their friends were in dire need and close to starvation 1  Starved bats who received help from friends more likely to give those ones help in need= altruism o Chimpanzee politics:  Dominance of big heavy chimp, to sexual activity; 75% mating responsibility  Ne kid on the block takes over, show off and bluff threats=women stayed with other chimp first; using the peacemakers of men/women alliances strong  Women began to move, dethroned, jump in copulations 25%-50%; older guys sex access dropped to 0  Old chimp made alliance with new up comer, who fought and caused 50% to him and 25% to old chimp. • Cooperation’s and altruism among humans: o Social contract theory:  Vulnerable to cheating; but sometimes favors cant be repaid on the spot  Social contract theory- evolution to solve cheating to the threat of cooperation which is necessary • Would favor them b.c. No cost incurs! • So, reciprocal altruism can only evolve if they have mechanism to detect cheaters… • 1. Ability to recognize many diff individual humans o Recognition vs. Sea of others; 34 yrs. Even w/o seeing o Neurological evidence in right hemisphere • 2. Ability to remember histories and interaction with many others o Remember them, and label them coop/cheater o Keep track of who owes whom • 3. Ability to communicate ones values o Communicate distress, or else vulnerable to be cheated again • 4. Ability to model values of others o Detect when a person needs; how they are needy; how to tailor fit help • 5. Ability to represent costs and benefits o Mechanisms of social exchange and cognitive pricing vs. Benefit o General ability to represent costs in exchanges not specific to items, which has evolved o Evidence for cheater-detections adaptations:  Humans aren’t all too logical  No evolved mechanism to respond to abstract logic problems  Do well looking for cheaters though  75% correct on a test for cheater detection, cross cultures, possible universal adaption of social exchange 2  Patient R.M did ok on some social exchange reasoning and may have more cognitive machinery even with a brain deformity  Mechanism appears to be highly sensitive to perspective one adopts • Governs sort of cheaters one biasedly looks for o Do people remember cheaters:  Remember know cheaters, low status cheater better than cooperators  Remembered best when rare, , source memory for cheaters-cheating context  Face recognition good for nonaltruists; avoid interaction with these others  Automatic bias toward ppl who has not cooperated; subtle visual cues perhaps; priming a personal story of cheating enhances recognition o Detection of prospective altruists:  Selection will favor coevolved adaptations to avoid being detected as cheaters  Adaptations lead to subtle forms of cheating; adaptations to sense genuineness of altruism  Those who help w/o seeking a return are genuine=best\  Altruism detection tasks success predicts performance on abstract problems • This would favor selection • However cheater detection/ altruism detection are very separate  Genuine spontaneous smiles in a study showed genuine altruism cues o Indirect reciprocity theory:  Altruism can evolve in indirect reciprocity-reputation, gossip..  Attractive to third parties, not direct, especially generous when others watching o Costly signaling theory:  Altruism in gifts to signal alliance reliability  Good for ppl with resources; costly=coalition-like-candidate  Honest cue to gauge resources and alliances  Forms of signals: 1. Preferentially chosen by others for coop relationships 2. Increased levels of coop within those r.s. 3. Higher status and reputation which could lead to a host of mates and other benefits  Test: volunteer anonymous or in group setting: • Anonymous was least taxing; group was most taxing • Forms to evolve by gaining reputation(more altruism in group)  Hang out with each other, altruists attract others, and each other o Psychology of Friendship: • Friendship; pleasure when helping-without receiving a reward • When we get a reciprocity guarantee we interpret it as less friendly • Marital reciprocation is likely dissatisfaction\ 3 • Should attend to intuitions, they have a signal that friendships in fact aren’t tit for tat  Should altruism be defined according to cost incurred: • Not considered to have occurred unless individual who is the altruist incurs a cost •
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