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Chapter 10

Chapter 10 evolutionary psychology.doc

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PSYC 3420
Irwin Silverman

Chapter 10 evolutionary psychology Aggression and warfare Aggression as a solution to adaptive problems: o Coopt the resources of others: Stockpile resources for reproduction, such as land, water, food, weapons Group or individual level; physical force, bullying, threats, male coalitions, spoils of wars through aggression o Defend against attack: Adaptive problem to would be victims Impeding survival and reproduction; harm to mates, kin, children Status and reputation may decline due to abuse, honor, \ Aggression therefore can defend vs. Attack o Inflict costs on intrasexual rivals: Same sex rivals vying for same resources Ranges from verbal to killing; make others less desirable to women o Negotiate status and power hierarchies: Increase status by ritual fights; admired and feared Can result in status decrement; sensitive to social contexts o Deter rivals from future aggression: Dont steal from mafia guy o Deter long-term mates from sexual infidelity: Threat deters, males jealousy in battering Women cite jealousy of other men consorting them as battering cause o Context specificity of aggression: Not unitary, monolithic, or context-blind strategy Aggression highly specific, triggered in places where ancestors confronted adaptive problems and got benefits as result of aggression Spousal battering to stop infidelity-more likely in low men resource- status than their wives 1 Adaptive benefits and costs-cause retaliation, escalation, reputation consequences Failure to avenge may mean loss of honor in some societies\ Usually choose ppl who wont fight back Some circles always bad-academia Women with higher densities of genetic kin in and out of cities deters aggression Evolved mechanism will be designed to be sensitive to context not the rigid invariant expression of aggression depicted in earlier instinct theories Why are men more violently aggressive than women: 86% homicides men 1965-80; 80% victims men Cross cultures men more aggressive, killers, victims too Intrasexual competition-parental investment and sexual selection Where females invest more; females are valuable limiting resource on reproduction for males; based on high investing women Sex diff in min. Parental investment means males produce more offspring than females can- ceiling on reproduction much higher for males than females Greater variance in reproduction=more selection favors riskier strategies such as intersexual aggression with sex showing higher variance Some seal have 5% father 85% of offspring in season; higher variance in reproduction are different in size and shape More intense polygyny=more dimorphic (diff size n shape) I.e. Males 4x size of females (seals); humans 18% heavier Summary-greater variance; greater dimorphisms Polygyny selects for risky strategies, violent combat with rivals and risk taking to acquire resources needed to attract member of high investing sex Violence occur at top and bottom of hierarchy; 2 Equal sex ratio=for those cosigned to bachelorhood and failure; risky strategy likely a last resort for these males Homicide data show-poor, unmarried more likely killers Aggression in polygyny= 1. Aggression by male to win big; 2. Avoid failure reproductively Breeding success tied to risks in securing territory and foods Selection filter those who fail to take risks Males promote more violence therefore; sustained by polygyny risk strategies Men are victims of aggression far more- for primary resources Women us aggression on other women verbally, putting down their appearance and mating repro chances Less violent and risky; due to parental investment and sexual selection
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