PSYC 3420 Chapter Notes - Chapter 12: Pecking Order, Eval, Social Skills

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24 Apr 2012
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Chapter 12 evolutionary psychology
Status prestige and social dominance:
Dominance hierarchies quick to form-one min for 50%; five mins 50%
The emergence of dominance hierarchies:
Winning crickets fight more-rich alexander-introduced model cricket
Submissive if they lose; dominance hierarchy develops
Pecking order of hens, dominant ones gain by not competing all day
All out fighting isn’t smart; submitting sometimes is better off
Selection will favor evolution of assessment abilities-ones own in
comparison to others abilities
One function-to avoid costly confrontations; bluffs; seeing through
bluffs;
Dominance hierarchy- some in group have access to greater resources
for survival/reproduction
Are transitive- a over b; and b over c= over c
Dominance and status in nonhuman animals:
Crayfish don’t inhabit same place unless determined who is the boss
Losers stay away
Neuron which fires serotonin; losers inhibit serotonin firing
2 subordinate crayfish together; one will shift
2 dominants-one forced to shift; yet will be more aggressive and
start up often
Chimps use stature to look heavier and larger
Submissive greeting –short pant grunts by lowering body
looking up at dominant/ bring gift for dominant chimp
Chimp then appears larger by extending his hair
Females show their behinds for inspection; failure to be
submissive is grounds for confrontations
Dominant males gets 50-75% sex access; typical repro
advantage
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Macaques mate secretly with subordinates
Very dominant chimps in estrus-conceive time-high ranking males sired
more offspring
Hierarchies aren’t static, continual competition
Ousted ales regain measure of former dominance
Size of primate not big determinant of rank
Social skills, allies, support are key
Basis for sex diff in dominance striving motive by adaptive rationale to
gain sex access
Evolutionary theories of dominance prestige and status:
Must account for why more among males, why subordinates act the way
they do, and differ b.w production hierarchies of cooperation vs. The
dominance hierarchies
Should also eval. The rank path; dominance uses force; prestige freely
conferred deference
Prestige may be due to skills, and domain specific
Prestige-admiration; dominance-fear
oPrestige signaling, reputation and leadership:
Displaying knowledge, lavish feasts
Prestige by competence of tasks, commitment, sacrifice, give more than
receive
Others must detect the signals, how much is needed,
Charity may boost in eyes of others, only if made public
This also displays leadership which is key evolutionary
Good for hunting, conflicts in group, consensus, generosity, knowledge,
skills,
oAn evolutionary theory of sex differences in status striving:
Male ceiling more variable and higher than female repro success
Nearly all fertile females will conceive unlike males;
matlessness for the others
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The more polygynous, the more variance in sex access for males
to women=stronger selection to become the few
disproportionate reproducers
1. Dominant men preferred by women-protect, resources, care,
prefer to share with other wife of high ranker than few benefits
of low ranker
2.intrasexual dominantion-subrdiantes, dont retaliate, push
around,
Status and sexual opportunity:
Harem women to status men sired many kids
High status higher sex access n short termers, extramarital
High status marry hotter women, seek younger fertile women
Are men higher in status striving:
Egotistic aggressive play for boy than girls in dominance
challenges; girls more nurutrant
Maccoby-speech in boys egotistic functions used to establish
turf; girls –conversation
Girls find it tough to influence boys
Sex diff in dominance motivation emerges early in life, Browne-
aggressiveness, completion, status, and risks linked to status and
income for adults
Social dominance orientation sdo-higher score-legitimize self
Sdo should be higher in men, women selected to choose men
higher in sdo; more benefits
Men and women express their dominance through different actions:
Women rated more proscoial dominant acts as desirable like
taking charge in meeting;
Men rated egoistic dominant acts as more desirable-managing
my own way; seem more selfish dominant than women
Dominant women tended to perform higher freq. Of prosocial
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