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Chapter 12

Chapter 12 evolutionary psychology.doc

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PSYC 3420
Irwin Silverman

Chapter 12 evolutionary psychology Status prestige and social dominance: Dominance hierarchies quick to form-one min for 50%; five mins 50% The emergence of dominance hierarchies: Winning crickets fight more-rich alexander-introduced model cricket Submissive if they lose; dominance hierarchy develops Pecking order of hens, dominant ones gain by not competing all day All out fighting isnt smart; submitting sometimes is better off Selection will favor evolution of assessment abilities-ones own in comparison to others abilities One function-to avoid costly confrontations; bluffs; seeing through bluffs; Dominance hierarchy- some in group have access to greater resources for survival/reproduction Are transitive- a over b; and b over c= over c Dominance and status in nonhuman animals: Crayfish dont inhabit same place unless determined who is the boss Losers stay away Neuron which fires serotonin; losers inhibit serotonin firing 2 subordinate crayfish together; one will shift 2 dominants-one forced to shift; yet will be more aggressive and start up often Chimps use stature to look heavier and larger Submissive greeting short pant grunts by lowering body looking up at dominant/ bring gift for dominant chimp Chimp then appears larger by extending his hair Females show their behinds for inspection; failure to be submissive is grounds for confrontations Dominant males gets 50-75% sex access; typical repro advantage 1 Macaques mate secretly with subordinates Very dominant chimps in estrus-conceive time-high ranking males sired more offspring Hierarchies arent static, continual competition Ousted ales regain measure of former dominance Size of primate not big determinant of rank Social skills, allies, support are key Basis for sex diff in dominance striving motive by adaptive rationale to gain sex access Evolutionary theories of dominance prestige and status: Must account for why more among males, why subordinates act the way they do, and differ b.w production hierarchies of cooperation vs. The dominance hierarchies Should also eval. The rank path; dominance uses force; prestige freely conferred deference Prestige may be due to skills, and domain specific Prestige-admiration; dominance-fear o Prestige signaling, reputation and leadership: Displaying knowledge, lavish feasts Prestige by competence of tasks, commitment, sacrifice, give more than receive Others must detect the signals, how much is needed, Charity may boost in eyes of others, only if made public This also displays leadership which is key evolutionary Good for hunting, conflicts in group, consensus, generosity, knowledge, skills, o An evolutionary theory of sex differences in status striving: Male ceiling more variable and higher than female repro success Nearly all fertile females will conceive unlike males; matlessness for the others 2 The more polygynous, the more variance in sex access for males to women=stronger selection to become the few disproportionate reproducers 1. Dominant men preferred by women-protect, resources, care, prefer to share with other wife of high ranker than few benefits of low ranker 2.intrasexual dominantion-subrdiantes, dont retaliate, push around, Status and sexual opportunity: Harem women to status men sired many kids High status higher sex access n short termers, extramarital High status marry hotter women, seek younger fertile women Are men higher in status striving: Egotistic aggressive play for boy than girls in dominance challenges; girls more nurutrant Maccoby-speech in boys egotistic functions used to establish
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