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Chapter 3

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York University
PSYC 3430
Peter Papadogiannis

Chapter 3 • Groups transform the me into the we • Through inclusion, the single individual changes from an outsider into an insider by joining a group • Through collectivism, group members begin to think about the good of the group as a whole rather than what the group provides them • Through the transformation of identity, individuals change their conception of who they are to include their group’s qualities as well as their own individual qualities Need to belong  the dispositional tendency to seek out and join with other humans • Most people, find protracted periods of social isolation disturbing Social Capital  the degree of function interconnectedness of a group of people thought to promote coordinated action for mutual benefit • Determined by the strength of networks, norms, and social trust • Strength of connections with others defines one’s social capital Ostracism  excluding a person or group of people from a group, usually by ignoring, shunning or explicitly banishing them • Extremely stressful • The excluded can feel frustrated, anxious, nervous, lonely, stressed • The pain of exclusion is neurologically similar to the pain cause by physical injury 5 Characteristic Stress Responses: 1. Freeze  little change in mood or emotion other than numbness and lethargy 2. Fight  fighting back against the exclusion  become hostile and aggressive 3. Flight  escaping the situation 4. Tend  Nurture, protect and support others 5. Befriend  take steps to strengthen their interpersonal relations Women are ostracized, are more likely to work harder on a subsequent collective task, to regain acceptance by the rest of the group. They are also more likely to blame themselves for their ostracism. Men do the complete opposite. Cyberostracism  the exclusion of one or more individuals from a technologically mediated group interaction, such as a computer based discussion group Sociometer Theory – LEARY • Those who were rejected reported feeling less competent, adequate, useful, smart and valuable than did the included members of the group • Ostracism caused by bad luck did not sting as much as ostracism caused by a group’s deliberate rejection • Leary’s Sociometer Theory suggests that the need to belong may be the primary motivational force at work rather than a striving for positive self regard.  An analysis of self esteem proposed by Leary, that argues self- esteem is not an index of perceived self-worth, but instead is a psychological monitor of one’s degree of inclusion and exclusion in social groups  Self esteem warns us of possible exclusion  Self esteem indicates the extent to which a person is included in groups  Warns us about place in group and affects our self esteem  Connection to stages 3 and 4 of Maslow’s hierarchy Evolutionary Theory • The need to belong to groups is part of human nature Individualism & Collectivism Continuum Individualism • Based on the independence of each individual • Assumes that people are autonomous and must be free to act and think in ways that they prefer, rather than submit to the demands of the group • Each person is unique  a true individual • Encouraged to strive to achieve outcomes and goals that will personally benefit them • The individual is primary first. • His or her rights must be recognized & put above the right of the group as a whole. • If the group’s goals aren’t compatible with the individual’s goals, then the individual is free to go his or her own way. Collectivism • The group is primary first. • Its rights must be recognized and put above the right of the individual. • The individual belongs to the group. • People are group members first, individuals second North Americans are generally more individualistic Four Aspects: • Interpersonal Relations • Norms and Roles • Motivations • Self Conception Interpersonal Relations • Balance between person needs and demands of the group – people often change their conception of who they are (includes groups’ qualities as well as their own.  Exchange Relationship (Individualism) – interpersonal association between individuals based on each person’s desire to increase the rewards they receive from others in the relationship.  Communal Relationship (Collectivism) – when individuals are more concerned about what others get vs. what is individually given  Norm of Reciprocity – a social standard that enjoins individuals to pay back in kind what they receive from others Norms and Roles • Collectivism: stresses hierarchy and reacts more negatively to nonconformity • Individualism: stresses individuality and independence Motivations • Collectivism: group-servin
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