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Chapter 9

PSYC 3430 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Leadership, Transformational Leadership, Terror Management Theory

Course Code
PSYC 3430
Peter K Papadogiannis

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Chapter 9, Leadership
Leadership: Guidance of others in their pursuit, often by unifying, directing, coordinating,
supporting, and motivating their efforts: also, the ability to lead others.
Is leadership power? Leadership is a form of power, but power with people rather than over
people, a cooperative relationship rather than a coercive one.
Are leaders born or made? Geetis thus reates a iologial readiess to lead, ut a perso’s
leadership potential is determined more by environmental forces, exposure to mentors and
role models.
Do all groups have leaders?
Groups can function without a leader but this role is only seen in newly formed groups and
larger groups depend on leaders to inform them, remind them. In general leaders appear in
groups when
1) Members feel that success on the group task is within their reach
2) The rewards of success are valued
3) The task requires group effort rather than individual effort
4) An individual with previous experience in the leadership role is present in group
Do followers resist leaders?
- Groups members are usually more satisfied and productive when their groups have
- This eed for leader’ eoes partiularl strog i groups that are eperieig
interpersonal turmoil or stressful, life-threatening circumstances.
Do leaders make a difference?
- Leaders influence their groups in significant ways. Studies of leaders in all kinds of group
situationflight crews, politics, schools, military units, and religious groupsall suggest
that groups prosper when guided by good leaders.
- Also leaders promote their own personal outcomes and overlook the good of the group.
They manipulate followers, persuading them to make sacrifices, while the leaders enjoy
the rewards of their power and influence.
Romance of leadership: The tendency to overestimate the amount of influence and control
leaders exert on their groups and their groups outcomes.
What is leadership?
- All definitions have the same themes: influence, relationships, and shared goals.
- Leadership is the process by which individuals guide others in their pursuits, often by
unifying, directing, coordinating, supporting, and motivating their efforts.
- Process of leaderships are reciprocal, transactional, transformational, cooperative, and
1) Leadership is a reciprocal process, involving the leader, the followers, and the group
situation. The leader does not just influence the group members; rather, the leader
follower relationship is mutual. An interactional view assumes that leadership cannot be
understood independently of followership, the skills and qualities displayed by non-
2) Leadership is a transactional process in which leaders and followers work together,
exchanging their time, energies, and skills to increase their joint rewards.
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3) Leadership is a trasforatioal proess, for leaders heighteed group eers’
motivation, confidence, and satisfaction by uniting members and changing their beliefs,
values, and needs.
4) Leadership is a cooperative process of legitimate influence rather than a sheer power.
The right to lead is, in most instances, voluntarily conferred on the leader by some or all
members of the group, with the expectation that the leader is motivated by the group’s
collective needs rather than his or her own interest.
5) Leadership is an adaptive, goal-seeking process, for it organizes and motivates group
eer’s attepts to attai persoal ad group goals
A distinction is often drawn between leadership and other forms of influence in groups
and organization, such as management and supervision.
Leaders may hold supervisory positions in groups, but holding a position does not
always translate into leadership; there are many bosses who are not leaders.
While there are individuals in groups and organizations who do not hold formal
positions of authority who are leaders, for they influence others as they pool their
efforts in the pursuit of same shared goals.
What do Leaders do?
Analyzing, communicating, consulting, controlling, coordinating, deciding, developing,
monitoring, negotiating, organizing, planning, representing, supporting, and supervising.
Leadership Behaviour Description Questionnaires
Overall correlation between task leadership and leadership outcomes is .29, and the correlation
for relationship leadership is .48. The correlation between relation-
ship leadership and follower satisfaction was particularly strong
Leadership substitutes
A conceptual analysis of the factors that reduce or eliminate the need for a leader (substitute)
or prevent the leader from dispatching his or her responsibilities.
Do women Lead differently than men?
themselves as more relationship-oriented on questionnaires. The sexes did not differ, however,
in studies conducted in organizational settings. Indeed, as leaders, women tended to be both
task-and relationship- Oriented, whereas men were primarily task-oriented. Women and men
often adopted different styles of leadership, but they did not differ in their argentic and
communal tendencies.
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Leadership Emergence
The process by which an individual becomes formally or informally, perceptually or
behaviourally, and implicitly or explicitly recognized as the leader of a leaderless group
Who will Lead?
Great Leader or Zeitgeist?
- A great historian leader, Thomas Carlyle offered up his great leader theory of history
alled it the great a theor. He asserted that leaders do ot ahiee their positio
by accident or twist of fate. Rather, these individuals possess certain characteristics that
mark them for greatness. Carlyle believed that leaders are unique individuals, and so
history could be best studied by considering the contributions of the few great men and
- Great leader theory: A view of leadership, attributed to historian Thomas Carlyle, which
states that successful leaders possess certain characteristics that mark them for
greatness and that such great leaders shape the course of history.
- The great leader theory is consistent with a trait approach to leadership which assumes
that leaders possess certain personality traits and characteristic and that these
characteristics are responsible for the ruse of leadership rank
- A view of leadership, attributed to Leo Tolstoy, which states that history is determined
primarily by the spirit of the times rather than the actions and choices of great leaders.
- Tolsto’s Zeitgeist view, in contrast is consistent with situationism which suggest that
leadership is determined by a host of variables operating in the leadership situation,
including the size of the group, its cohesion, the quality of leader-member relations, and
the type of task to be performed.
Traits and Situations Combined: An Interactional Perspective
Contemporary theorist about leadership, true to Kurt Lewins, Behaviour=f(P,E) formula
Trait approach(P), and the situational approach (E).
The Leader’s Personality
Searching for Leadership Traits
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