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Chapter 11

PSYC 3430 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Transactive Memory, Collective Memory, Decision Support System

Course Code
PSYC 3430
Peter K Papadogiannis

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Chapter 11, decision making
The perspective Functional
Functional Theory of group decision making: A conceptual analysis of the steps or processes
that groups generally follow when making a decision, with a focus on the intended purpose of
each step or process in the overall decision-making sequence
The Orientation Stage
- In the first stage of problem solving, orientation, the group reviews its objectives and
organizes the procedures it will use in its work. All this planning provides the blue print
fo the ode i hih a seuee of opeatios is to e pefoed “o that atios ae
structure effectively.
- By the end, the group should understand its purpose, procedures, and the tasks that it
will undertake.
Setting Goals and Objectives:
- Time
- Goals
- Supplying the work
- Assign different individuals to specific roles and tasks
- Identify the procedure and project
Shared mental models
- Knowledge, expectations, conceptualizations, and other cognitive representations that
members of a group have in common pertaining to the group and its members, tasks,
procedures, and resources.
Benefits of Planning
- The benefits of planning is so great that in some cases it is the only thing that
differentiates successful groups from the unsuccessful ones.
The Discussion stage:
- Discussion: The communication of information between two or more people
undertaken for some shared purpose, such as solving a problem, making a decision, or
increasing participation mutual understanding of the situation.
A collective Information Processing Model:
- A general theoretical explanation of group decision making assuming that groups use
communication and discussion among the members to gather and process the
information needed to formulate decisions, choices, and judgements.
Collective Memory Processes:
- Two heads are better than one because groups have superior memories for information
relative to individuals
- Colletie eo: A goup’s oied eoies iludig eah ee’s eoies,
the goups’ shaed etal models, and transactive memory system.
Transactive memory processes:
- Information to be remembered is disturbed to various members of the group who can
then be relied upon to provide that information when it is needed.
Cross coding:
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- The enhancement of recall that occurs during group discussion when the statement
made by group members serves as cues for the retrieval information from the memories
of other group members.
Information Exchange:
- If the human mind is an information processing network, then a group is a network of
networks. Groups do not merely draw on a larger pool of information than individual.
They can also exchange information among the members of the group.
Processing Information
- Groups not only recall and exchange information more effectively than individuals, they
also process that information more thoroughly through discussion
Error Detecting and Correction:
- Error-checking process was identified as a crucial determinant of successful decision
making by psychologist Shaw
The Decision Stage
Social Decision Scheme
- A strategy or rule used in a group to select a single alternative from among various
alteaties poposed ad disussed duig the goup’s delieatios, iludig
explicitly acknowledged decision rules (e.g, the group accepts the alternative favored by
the majority) and implicit decisional procedures (e.g., the group accepts the alternative
favored by the most powerful members).
Delegating: Shared Decisions
- The group as a whole does not make the decision hen the decisions id delegated to one
of the members, a subgroup within the group, or someone outside of the group. Under
an authority scheme, the leader, president or other individual make the final decisions
with our without input from the group members.
Averaging; Staticized Decisions.
- I soe ases, goups ake deisios  oiig eah idiidual’s pefeees usig
some type of computational procedure.
Voting: Plurality Decisions.
- Most groups, at least in western cultures, use some type of voting procedure to make
decisions. Members express their individual preferences publicly or, to reduce social
pressure by secret ballot.
- Voting can also lead to internal politics, as members get together before meetings to
apply pressure, form coalitions, and trade favors to ensure the passage of proposal they
- Also if a vote is taken publicly, individuals may
a) Conform to others opinions rather than expressing their personal views
b) Refuse to change their public opinion as to maintain the image od independence and
Reaching Consensus: Unanimous Decisions
- People usually express more satisfaction with this procedure than any other decision-
making method
- Takes a lot of time so if rushed it can misfire.
The implementation Stage
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- First the decision must be implemented
- Second the decision needs to be evaluated
Evaluating the plan
Social Justice
- Implantation is, in some cases, more or less successful depending on perceptions of the
fairness of the decision. Fairness judgments are determined by two forms of social
justice: distributive and procedural.
Distributive Justice:
- Perceived fairness of the distribution of rights, resources, and costs.
Procedural Justice:
- Perceived fairness and legitimacy of the methods used to make decision, resolve
disputes, and allocate resources; also, in judicial contexts, the use of fair and impartial
People are more likely to regard a decision as fair one if the decisional procedures are
implanted a) consistently b) without self-interest c) on the basis of accurate information d) with
opportunities to correct the decision e) which the interest of all concerned parties represented
f) following moral and ethical standard
Participation and Voice
- Coch and French suspected that employees would respond more positively if they were
involved in planning changes, so they devised three different training programs.
- Autonomous work groups and self-directed teams: are the modern-day counterparts to
Coch and Feh’s total-participation groups.
These groups vary considerably in composition and goals, but in most cases, they are
charged with identifying problems that are undermining productivity, efficiency, quality, or
job satisfaction. These groups spend considerable time discussing the causes of the
problems and suggesting possible solutions, either with or without a formal leader or
supervisor. Once decisions are made about changes (usually by consensus), these changes
are implemented and evaluated. If the changes do not have the desired effect, the process
is repeated.
Who decides?
- Making a decision in a group offers a number of advantages over making a decision
alone. Groups with their greater informational resources and capacity to process that
information may be able to identify better solutions and to detect errors in reasoning.
Normative Model of Decision Making
- A theory of decision making and leadership that predicts the effectiveness of group-
centered, consultative, and autocratic decisional procedures across a number of group
settings developed by Victor and his associates.
5 basic types of decision making methods
- Decide: The leader solves the problem or makes the decision and announces it to the
group. The leader may rely on information available to him or her at that time, but may
also obtain information from group members. The members only provide information to
the leader, and the leader may not tell the group members why the information is
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