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Chapter 3

Chapter 3

Course Code
PSYC 3430
Peter K Papadogiannis

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upBrian Palmer & Joe Gorman illustrate what has been called © of social
life: 
Healthy adult human beings can survive apart from other members of the species, yet 
, , humans consistently seek inclusion in groups, where they must
balance their personal needs & desires against the demands & requirements of their groups
Ôpë: remained an individualist who was so self-reliant he refused to rely on others in
his rush to personal success
Ôpë: put the groupǯs interests before his own personal needs; he identified so
strongly with his groups that his sense of self came to be defined by them
3 essential processes that combine to transform the lone individual into a group member;
upë: the single individual changes from an outsider into an insider by joining a
upëc: group members begin to think about the good of the group as a whole
rather than what the group provides them
upë: individuals change their conception of who they are to
include their groupǯs qualities as well as their own individual qualities
Some species are [: cheetah, giant panda, orangutan, etc.] & gather together in some
cases !"# to mate or rear offspring
Other animals [: chimps, hyena, deer, mice, etc.] are ; usually forage, feed, sleep,
& travel in small groups
[any theorists, when identifying the fundamental psychological processes that drive humans'
actions across a range of situations & settings, include a ë on their list
up$%&"ë: "all human beings have a pervasive drive to form
& maintain at least a minimum quantity of lasting, positive, & impactful interpersonal
Likened a need to belong to other basic needs: a person who has not eaten will feel hungry, but a
person having little contact with other people will feel unhappy & lonely
upë!$: the dispositional tendency to seek out & join with other humans
Spending time alone, away from others, can be a rejuvenating, pleasurable experience
When surveyed about their reactions to isolation, people report enjoying the '
 that occurs when one is physically isolated from
interactions with & observations by others
upWhen alone, people report they can Dzdiscover who I am,dz Dzdetermine what I want to be,dz
Dzmeditate & reflect,dz Dztry out some new behaviors,dz Dzrecover my self-esteem,dz Dzprotect
myself from what others say,dz & Dztake refuge from the outside worlddz
Even though people express a desire for privacy, most spend the majority of their waking hours in
the company of others Ȃ only unmarried or widowed adults over age of 45 reported spending more
time alone than with others
upuhe number of groups existing at any moment in time is evidence of the strength of the
need to belong

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Aoluntary associations [: churches, farming cooperatives, fraternal clubs, hobby groups, civic
service associations & community councils] 
upWith groups ranging from the small & distinctive to the large & diverse, there is a group for
anyone who wants to join one, & most do
Even more numerous are the many &' [: family, friends, &
acquaintances] who meet regularly, that satisfy membersǯ need for inclusion
up£#: ()*+ of Americans reported they lived with other people, including family
members, partners, & roommates
uhe majority ë+'(+reported  [: attending a
sports event together, visiting one another for the evening, sharing a meal, or going out as a group
to see a movie]
People could perform a variety of activities alone [: learn by reading books & studying papers,
watch DADs in the privacy of their homes, & dine each night at their kitchen counters] ,
! : they  to perform these activities in 
Joining with others in groups remains a universally observed characteristic of humans across all
known societies
uhe strength of the need to belong is seen more clearly when this need is thwarted
[ost people, both young & old, find protracted periods of social isolation disturbing
upDiaries of people who have been isolated from others for long periods of time [: stranded
explorers, scientists working in seclusion & prisoners in solitary confinement] 
 rather than physical deprivations
As their isolation wears on, they report fear, insomnia, memory lapses, depression, fatigue, &
general confusion
Prolonged periods of isolation are also marked by hallucinations and delusions
upë : excluding a person or group of people from a group, usually by ignoring,
shunning, or explicitly banishing them
Peopleǯs need to belong is slaked when a group accepts them, but they are 
In contrast, , & this negative
reaction is exacerbated if the group ostracizes, abandons, or banishes them
upcontemporary forms of ostracism range from - of a member [when a
church excommunicates a member or a club permanently bans a patron] to more 
 [Dzsilent treatmentdz or the Dzcold shoulderdz]
":  frustration, shock, & surprise
People who are !c",, value their experiences in the group; the c",, feel as if they are
invisible Ȃ as if they do not even exist socially
up ; when asked, the excluded describe themselves as
frustrated, anxious, nervous, & lonely [sometimes using such negative words as
heartbroken, depressed, & worthless
 [: elevated blood pressure & cortisol levels; stress-
related hormone]
up£,#: neurological reactions people have when excluded using an %
f[Iǯs indicate what portions of the brain are more active than others by measuring cranial
temperature & blood flow
When people were left out of a group activity, a specific area of the brain ë
./cc0 was active

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uhis area of the brain is linked with the experience of physical pain & other negative social
up>D.1)0: peopleǯs initial,  reaction to exclusion is followed by a
more deliberative,  during which individuals consider the reasons for their
rejection & respond accordingly
Depending on the results of these ruminations, people will display one of 5 characteristic stress
responses: 
0pA ë'''' is more 
uhe "' '" to stress involves fighting back against the exclusion or
escaping the situation
uhose displaying the £ !£ become hostile & aggressive when rejected by others
upuhey may confront group members directly, attempt to force their way into the group, insist
that the group exclude someone else, & derogate those who have excluded them
In more  they may respond  "!"#
, in contrast, - & withdraw from the group
up,! !'ë'': a physiological response to stressful events
characterized by the activation of the SNS (increased heart rate, pupil dilation) that readies
the individual to counter the threat .0 or to escape the threat .0
0pA ë!,''$!, in other cases, to exclusion
People nurture, protect, & support others .0 or they take steps to strengthen their
interpersonal relations .0; express more interest in making new friends, become more
cooperative, & treat new acquaintances more positively
upD %! & to respond to exclusion by !,!: do things to help the group
[: working harder on collective tasks, apologizing for previous behaviors, & making
sacrifices for others
up,! !'ë''$: an interpersonal response to stressful events
characterized by increased nurturing, protective, & supportive behaviors .0 & by
seeking out connections to other people .0
ëD: demonstrated the earnestness of the excluded in 3-person groups that
included one real participant & 2 confederates
When the experimenter left the room, the confederates bounced a ball back & forth between them
In some cases, the confederates included the participant in their game, but in other cases, they
stopped bouncing the ball to the participant after about a minute
uhe participants, when later asked how much they liked the other 2 group members, 
upD %! who had been ostracized worked harder on a subsequent collective task,
apparently to regain acceptance by the rest of the group
upWomen were more likely to  for their ostracism (: DzI have trouble
making a good impression with othersdz)
%! however did not compensate by working harder or take the blame for their rejection
Ôpc#$ £/c£% no longer meet only in face-to-face situations but also in multi-
user forums, email discussions, & game sites on the Internet
Just as people sometimes exclude others from group activities in face-to-face activities, online
members also sometimes ignore others, effectively excluding them from the interaction
upD labeled this form of exclusion ë; exclusion of one or more
individuals from a technologically mediated group interaction [: computer-based
discussion group]
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