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PSYC 3430 (63)
Chapter 3

Chapter 3

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PSYC 3430
Peter K Papadogiannis

Chapter 3InclusionIdentityy Brian PalmerJoe Gorman illustrate what has been called the master problem of social life what is the connection between the individualsociety including groups organizationscommunities Healthy adult human beings can survive apart from other members of the species yet across individuals societieseras humans consistently seek inclusion in groups where they must balance their personal needsdesires against the demandsrequirements of their groupsPalmer remained an individualist who was so selfreliant he refused to rely on others in his rush to personal successGorman put the groups interests before his own personal needs he identified so strongly with his groups that his sense of self came to be defined by them 3 essential processes that combine to transform the lone individual into a group memberthe single individual changes from an outsider into an insider by joining a y Inclusiongroupgroup members begin to think about the good of the group as a whole y Collectivismrather than what the group provides them y Transformation of identity individuals change their conception of who they are to include their groups qualities as well as their own individual qualitiesFrom Isolation to Inclusioncheetah giant panda orangutan etcgather together in some Some species are solitary excases ONLY to mate or rear offspringchimps hyena deer mice etc are social creatures usually forage feed sleep Other animals ex travel in small groups y What about humans Many theorists when identifying the fundamental psychological processes that drive humans actions across a range of situationssettings include a need to belong on their list y Roy BaumeisterMark Leary 1995 all human beings have a pervasive drive to formmaintain at least a minimum quantity of lasting positiveimpactful interpersonal relationships Likened a need to belong to other basic needs a person who has not eaten will feel hungry but a person having little contact with other people will feel unhappylonely The Need to Belong the dispositional tendency to seek outjoin with other humans y Need to BelongSpending time alone away from others can be a rejuvenating pleasurable experience When surveyed about their reactions to isolation people report enjoying the selfdiscovery contemplationincreased spirituality that occurs when one is physically isolated from interactions withobservations by others y When alone people report they can discover who I am determine what I want to be meditatereflect try out some new behaviors recover my selfesteem protect myself from what others saytake refuge from the outside world Even though people express a desire for privacy most spend the majority of their waking hours in the company of othersonly unmarried or widowed adults over age of 45 reported spending more time alone than with others y The number of groups existing at any moment in time is evidence of the strength of the need to belongVoluntary associations ex churches farming cooperatives fraternal clubs hobby groups civic service associationscommunity councils are not rare but very common y With groups ranging from the smalldistinctive to the largediverse there is a group for anyone who wants to join onemost dofamily friendsEven more numerous are the many informal kinbased and social groups exacquaintances who meet regularly that satisfy members need for inclusion y SURVEY 873 of Americans reported they lived with other people including family members partnersroommatesattending a The majority 5080 reported doing things in groups of friendsrelatives exsports event together visiting one another for the evening sharing a meal or going out as a group to see a movielearn by reading booksstudying papers People could perform a variety of activities alone exwatch DVDs in the privacy of their homesdine each night at their kitchen counters but most DO NOT they prefer to perform these activities in groups Joining with others in groups remains a universally observed characteristic of humans across all known societiesThe Pain of ExclusionThe strength of the need to belong is seen more clearly when this need is thwarted Most people both youngold find protracted periods of social isolation disturbing y Diaries of people who have been isolated from others for long periods of time ex stranded explorers scientists working in seclusionprisoners in solitary confinement often stress the psychological costs of their ordeal rather than physical deprivations As their isolation wears on they report fear insomnia memory lapses depression fatiguegeneral confusion Prolonged periods of isolation are also marked by hallucinations and delusionsexcluding a person or group of people from a group usually by ignoring y Ostracismshunning or explicitly banishing them Peoples need to belong is slaked when a group accepts them but they are most satisfied when a group actively seeks them out In contrast people respond negatively when a group ignores or avoids themthis negative reaction is exacerbated if the group ostracizes abandons or banishes them y Contemporary forms of ostracism range from formal rejection of a member when a church excommunicates a member or a club permanently bans a patron to more subtle interpersonal tactics silent treatment or the cold shoulderreport frustration shocksurprise Ostracized FEELPeople who are INCLUDED value their experiences in the group the EXCLUDED feel as if they are invisibleas if they do not even exist socially y Ostracism is extremely stressful when asked the excluded describe themselves as frustrated anxious nervouslonely sometimes using such negative words as heartbroken depressedworthlesselevated blood pressurecortisol levels stressEvidence physiological signs of stress exrelated hormoneneurological reactions people have when excluded using an fMRI y STUDYfMRIs indicate what portions of the brain are more active than others by measuring cranial temperatureblood flow When people were left out of a group activity a specific area of the brain dorsal anterior cingulate cortex dACC was active
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