PSYC 3480 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia, Paramesonephric Duct, Allosome
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Gender typing= how kids acquire their knowledge about gender and how they
develop their gender related personality characteristics, preferences, skills,
behaviors and self concepts.
BACKGROUND ON GENDER DEVELOPMENT
Prenatal sex development:
Sex chromosomes= 23rd pair which determine if the embryo is male or female.
Mom has the X chromosome and the dad has the Y or X chromosome. Depending
on which chromosome fertilizes the egg, will determine the sex.
XX= girl. YX= boy.
Typical prenatal development:
Men and women for the first 6 weeks are more or less identical besides the
chromosomes. Eventually in the women the Mullerian ducts develops- uterus, egg
ducts and part of the vagina. For men the Wolffian ducts develops into the
internal reproductive system- prostate gland and the vesicles for semen.
Gonads= sex glands.
Third month after conception, there is further sex differentiation.
The male secretes androgens= male sex hormone
Women secretes estrogen= female sex hormones.
Summary of sexual development: 1. Development of the internal reproductive
system. 2. Development of the gonads. 3. Hormone production. 4. Development
of the external genitals.
Atypical prenatal development:
Intersexed individual= has genitals that aren’t clearly male or female, doesn’t
have chromosomes or internal reproductive system, gonads, hormones and
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia= females receive as much androgen as males do
during prenatal development. So their genitals look a little masculine at birth.
Surgery can fix this.
Androgen insensitivity syndrome= males make a normal amount of androgen
but a genetic condition makes their bodies not respond to androgen. Therefore,
their external genital doesn’t look like a penis.
People’s responses to infant girls and boys:
Prenatal preferences about sex of children:
It used to be that for the first child parents preffered boys, but now the research
doesn’t say anything like this.
Study conducted on preferences for NA parents- parents were happy with a first
born boy and then following that birth with a girl.
India and Korea- strong preference for boys, if it’s a girl they want an abortion.
In china this happens a lot. For every 120 boys there are only 100 girls born. This
later will cause marriage problems.
Anti female bias is with Theme 2.
Peoples stereotypes about infant girls and boys:
There was a study conducted on new born infant girls. They made sure that the
girls were very healthy. Parents were asked to rate their daughters on number
scales. In general the results showed that the parents rated their daughters as
relatively weak, where as boys were strong.
When the kids are given gender labels, they are judged differently on the infants
activities and physical characteristics.
Social construction= we construct or invert our own versions of reality based on
our prior exepreinces and beliefs.
Theories of gender development:
People don’t go with Freuds psychoanalytic theory.
People acquire gender by:
1. Social learning approach, children learn gender related behaviors from other
2. Cognitive developmental approach, children actively synthesize and create their
own thoughts about gender.
The social learning approach:
Social learning approach=traditional approaches to learning are important for
1. Kids are rewarded for gender appropriate behavior
2. Kids watch and imitate the behavior of people from their own gender category.
Kids directly learn many gender related behaviors based on positive and negative
responses from other people.
Modeling or observational learning= learning by imitating others.
The cognitive developmental approach:
Cognitive development approach= kids are active thinkers who look for
information from their environment and they also try to organize their information
into a coherent fashion.
Schema= general concept that helps us organize our thoughts and attitudes about
Gender schemas= organize information based on female and male.
Kids actively work to organize their own gender
Gender identity= important step in gender development. They have the right
label by the time they are 1.5-2.5
Once they label themselves they learn how to classify themselves as boy or girl
and they do the activities based on this gender.
General comments about theories of gender development:
Both the social learning and cognitive development approaches account for
children’s development of gender typing.
FACTORS THAT DSHAPE GENDER TYPING
Earlier in the kids life parents react to their kids according to the stereotypes
because they don’t know their kids unique characteristics. But once they get older
the parents learn their kid’s characteristics and they can react to them based on
Gender types activities:
Encourage gender typed activities when assigning chores.