• Key factors associated with good mental health include social support and optimism
• Amenorrhea- cessation of period caused by anorexia
• “Reverse anorexia” refers to desire for a lean, more muscular look on the part of some teenage female athletes
• According to the ruminative style theory of depression, women are more likely than men to focus on inner
feelings and analyze the causes of their depression.
• Older women show fewer negative emotions, greater well-being, and more emotional control than younger
• Key components of a purposeful life for older women include:
o caring family and friends.
o meaningful activities.
1. Discuss gender difference in the use of social support for maintaining good mental health.
• Girls are more luley than boys to seek social support following stressfull events
• Women who feel more loved and supported by their friends relative and children are at less risk of major
• Whereas men’s level of social support is less strongly related to the risk of depression
• Women often respond to stress by tending themselves and their children by forming tieswith others ( the “tend
and befriend” response)
• Men tend to show aggression or escape - fight or flight response
• Women tend to internalize problems causing depression and anxiety and men tend to externalize it causing
2. Discuss the major factors contributing to the increased prevalence of eating disorders in women during the
past 20 years? / What characteristics place some young women more at risk for developing eating disorders?
• Biological factor
o An identitical twin is more likely than a fraternal twin to develop an eating problem
o While this suggest that eating disorder is genetically predisposed it could also be caused to the same
social and cultural environement that identitcal twins are in
• Psychological factors
o Certain psychological characteristic puts women at a higher risk:
▪ Low self-esteem high level of anxiety, depression, perfectionism, competitiveness, Obsessive
compulsive thoughts and behaviour , difficulty in separating from parents and strong need for
approval from others
o Eating problem can also be reflected from family problems
▪ Parents of Bulimic tend to be highly critical and controlling and overprotective and low in
nurturance and support
o Sexual and physical abuse
• Cultural factors
o Eating disorder as drastic attempt to attain the reedthin ideal of beauty that has been socially constructed
o The impact of media
o Women and girls in sports have high cultural pressure to be thin Chapter 13
o Female athlete traid: the combination of disordered eating accompanied by amenorrhea and premature
bone loss or osteoporosis
▪ in dance related sports such as gymnastic
3. Explain why women with physical disabilities tend to have an elevated risk for eating disorders.
• more vulnerable than others because their disabilies often involve body image disturbances
• They feel lack of control resulting from needing assistance from others and they may focus on weight
maintenance to sustain mobility
4. What are some of the factors that increase women’s risk of developing alcohol-related problems?
• Children of alcoholic parents or siblings have increased rates of alcoholism
• Genetic factors appear to play strong role in both daughter and sons
• Adolescence whose parents or peers use alcohol are more likely to drink at an early age = later alcohol problem
• Divorced/ single women tend to drink more heavily than married or widowed = future alcohol problem
• Women who are depressed and anxioys and report stressful events occurred in their life tend to be more likely
to drink heavily
5. Discuss the gender gap in substance abuse and give one explanation for it.
• 8-10% women develop alcohol problem whereas men its 15-20% 2:1 ratio
• telescoping- whole womesn alcoholism starts later than men’s, it progresses more quickly
• gender gap has disappeared among young adolescence drink equally
• one reason for this can be more advertisement in female products (wine and coolers)
• In illegal substance men have higher usage than women
o Reason: drug use in femlaes is less acceptable in society than in men
6. Discuss the symptoms of panic disorder and specific phobias. Indicate possible reasons for the higher
incidence of these disorders in women than men.
• Panic disorder: sudden unpredictable attacks of intense anxiety accompanied by pounding heart, dizziness,
sweating, shortness of breath and trembling
• Panic disorder can lead to agrophobia which is being scared of going to public places where escape mighe be
difficult if one were suddenly incapacitated
• Agrophobia is just one of a group anxiety disorder known as specific phobia a fear of specific object, such
as spider or a specific situation such as public places or flying
• Specific phobia usually starts in childhood
• Social construction of hender specific attitudes and behavious may account for the higher prevalence of these
phobias in females than in males
o Expression of fear is more socially a