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Chapter 5

PSYC 3480 Chapter 5: Psych of Women - Chapter 5

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York University
PSYC 3480

Chapter 5 o Women look at convo partner more than men maintain eye contact more o Even when gender differences are found, they are typically small o There is considerable overlap in the characteristics of males and females o Looking at how gender stereotypes influence social behaviours and personality traits Social Behaviours and Personality Traits Aggression o Stereotype that males are more aggressive and that females are more maternal o Also a perception that testosterone directly influences aggression o What is understood now is that levels of testosterone are mediated by other social factors o Aggression is defined as behaviour that is intended to hurt someone either physically or verbally o Opposite of aggression = prosocial behaviour o Crime rates contribute to the belief that men are more aggressive than women (no laws or punishments for relational aggression, but physical aggression is punished) o By age 2, boys show higher levels of physical aggression than girls, and during the preschool period the differences become striking o Boys continue to be more physically and verbally aggressive than girls into adulthood o Beginning in preschool, girls are somewhat more likely than boys to use relational aggression harming others through hurtful manipulation of their peer relationship (rumours, gossip, Mean Girls) relational aggression sets the stage for adjustment problems later in life o Girls who use relational aggression tend to be both popular and powerful within their peer group strategic use of relational aggression may serve to maintain social dominance as well as to display superiority o Bio and enviro influences may contribute to gender differences in aggression o Gender differences emerge early and appear across most cultures o Testosterone appears to play a role, at least in animal aggression o Increasing testosterone levels aggression o Acting aggressively testosterone levels o Correlation is difficult to interpret ^ o Relation between testosterone and aggression is not linear o Testosterone is related to antisocial behaviour o Research indicates that testosterone levels go up when males engage in competitive activities
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