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Chapter 4

PSYC 3480 Chapter 4: Psych of Women - Chapter 4

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York University
PSYC 3480

Chapter 4 Similarities approach in infancy, the size of the difference between males and females is small (small effect size), the gender difference increases as children age so what is happening along the way, leading to bigger differences? Temperament (inherent) aligned with differences approach Girls are not born sadder than boys as they age, gender difference in depression increases Distinguishing Between Males and Females o From the moment babies are born they are surrounded by cues that signify gender o They are given gendered names and outfitted in colour coded clothing, diapers and blankets o Infants as young as 34 months of age can tell the difference between pictures of adult females vs. males o Young children who learn to identify females and males early, show more gendertypical preferences for toys and peers Gender Identity and SelfPerceptions o Children develop gender identity between ages 2 and 3 by that time they can accurately label their own gender o As children become more aware of their membership in a particular gender category, they begin to view their own gender more favourably than the other gender Gender Stereotypes o Children as young as 2 years know that certain objects and activities (e.g. Putting on makeup) are associated with females and other objectsactivities are associated with males (e.g. fixing a car) o Preschoolers demonstrate a rudimentary awareness of gender stereotypes for personality traits (e.g. cries a lot, needs help) o Knowledge of gendertypical personality traits emerges later than other stereotypical information and increases rapidly throughout elementary school o As early as age 6, children are aware that men generally have higher social status than women o Gender stereotypes become quite rigid between the ages of 5 and 7 more flexible until early adolescence more traditional again
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