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Chapter 7

Chapter 7 Women and Work.docx

4 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 3480
Professor
Noreen Stuckless

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Chapter 7 Women and Work Background Factors Related to Women’s Employment  The general term working women refers to two categories: 1. Employed women, or women who work for pay. 2. Nonemployed women or women who are not paid for their work.  General Information About Employed Women o Situations or characteristics that predict whether a woman works outside the home:  Her educational background: those with one are more likely to work outside  Immigrant status  Two factors not related to employment are parental status and ethnicity  Women, Welfare and TANF o The previous policy called AFDC program, was created to provide welfare payments for children whose parents could not supply economic support o In 1996, this was replaced by TANF. o This new program includes many regulations that jeopardize economically poor women o For example, individuals can only receive TANF for a lifetime max of 5 years  Discrimination in Hiring Patterns o ACCESS DISCRIMINATION refers to discrimination used in hiring o When does Access Discrimination Operate? a) Employers who have strong gender stereotypes are more likely to demonstrate access discrimination b) When the applicant’s qualifications are ambiguous c) When they are assertive, rather than feminine d) When women apply for a prestigious position e) Access discrimination operates for both women and men when they apply for gender inappropriate jobs o How does Access Discrimination Operate? a) Employers may have negative stereotypes about women’s abilities b) Employers may assume that the candidate must have certain stereotypically masculine characteristics to succeed on the job c) Employers may pay attention to inappropriate characteristics when female candidates are being interviewed. In this situation, called GENDER ROLE SPILLOVER, beliefs about gender roles and characteristics are spread to the work setting  What is Affirmative Action? o Affirmative action means that an employer must make special efforts to consider qualified members of underrepresented groups during hiring Discrimination in the Workplace  Discrimination in Salaries o Men earn more o Comparable Worth  The concept of comparable worth argues that women and men should receive equal pay for different jobs when those different jobs are comparable  People who favor comparable worth legislation point out that we can attribute much of the gender gap in wages to OCCUPATIONAL SEGREGATION; men and women tend to choose different occupations  So far, comparable worth legislation has had only limited success o Reactions to Lower Salaries  With respect to salaries, men seem to have a greater sense of entitlement  Denial of personal disadvantage: women are reluctant to acknowledge that they are personally victims of discriminations  Discrimination in Promotions o Glass ceiling: an invisible but rigid barrier tha
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