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Chapter 13

Chapter 13 Violence Against Women.docx

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PSYC 3480
Noreen Stuckless

Chapter 13 Violence Against Women Sexual Harassment  Refers to unwanted gender related behavior  Most sexual harassment situations occur in either a work setting or a school setting  The American legal system now prohibits two types of sexual harassment a) Quid pro quo harassment- a powerful individual in a university or workplace makes it clear that someone with less power must submit to sexual advances to obtain something b) Hostile-environment harassment- applies to a situations in which the atmosphere at school or at work is so intimidating and unpleasant that a student or an employee cannot work effectively Why is sexual harassment an important issue? 1. Sexual harassment emphasizes that men have more power than women in our society 2. Sexual demands are often coercive 3. Sexual harassment dehumanizes women 4. Women are often forced to be silent 5. Many onlookers will conclude that sexist behavior is acceptable Women’s reactions to being sexually harassed  Most women experience anxiety, fear, self doubt, embarrassment, helplessness and depression  Some develop eating disorders  Research has found that females were more likely than males to believe that sexual harassment is a serious problem What to do About Sexual Harassment  Individual action  How men can help  Society’s response to the harassment problem Sexual Assault and Rape  Sexual assault is a term that includes sexual touching and other forms of unwanted sexual contact  Sexual assault is typically accompanied by psychological pressure, coercion or physical threats  Rape is a more specific kind of sexual assault. Rape can be defined as sexual penetration without the individual’s consent obtained by force  Rape is more common in cultures where women are clearly subordinate to men Acquaintance Rape  Refers to rape by a person known to the rape survivor, who is not related by blood or marriage  Women who have been acquaintance raped are less likely to apply that term to the assault, and less likely to report it The Role of Alcohol and Drugs  About half of the rapes in the US are associated with the use of alcohol by either the perpetrator or the victim  Men who have been drinking tend to overestimate a woman’s interest in sexual activity  Women who have been drinking are more likely to judge a sexually aggressive situation as being relatively safe Women’s reactions to Rape  A woman’s reaction to rape depends on 1. the nature of the attack 2. whether she knows the assailant 3. the threat of danger 4. her stage in life 5. whether she is well informed about rape issues  however, almost all women who have been raped report they were terrified, repulsed and overwhelmed while being raped  during the rape, some women report that they feel detached from their own bodies  Short term adjustment:  Women report a wide range of feelings during the first few weeks after a rape  The reactions of other people are crucial  Long term adjustment  The effects of a rape do not disappear suddenly  The physical and mental aftereffects may last for years  Women who have been raped are also likely to experience depression, excessive weight loss, eating disorders
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