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Ch1 notes.docx

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PSYC 3480
Noreen Stuckless

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Psychology of Women Chapter 1 Notes - In many ways women’s lives are improving o However, even in the twenty-first century, women are frequently treated in a biased fashion. o the popular media and the academic community frequently neglect women and issues important to them. - Two related terms: o Sex: is a relatively narrow term that typically refers only to those inborn biological characteristics relating to reproduction, such as sex chromosomes or sex organs o Gender: refers to the psychological characteristics and social categories that human culture creates (For example, a friend showed me a photo of her 7-month-old son, whom the photographer had posed with a football.)  Doing gender: you express your gender when you interact with other people; you also perceive gender in these other people, such as an infant posed with a football. (you provide gender messages to other people by your appearance, your tone of voice, and your conversational style.)  You probably respond differently to a male than to a female.  The phrase doing gender emphasizes that gender is an active, dynamic process rather than something that is stable and rigid.  Impossible to stop doing gender because it’s part of our actual identity  Sexism: is bias against people on the basis of their gender. A person who believes that women cannot be competent lawyers is sexist. A person who believes that men cannot be competent nursery school teachers is also sexist. Sexism can reveal itself in many forms, such as social behavior, media representations of women and men, and job discrimination.  One social category is considered normative or standard, whereas the other categories are considered deficient  Racism: is bias against people on the basis of racial or ethnic groups. Research suggests that White preschoolers tend to choose other White children as their friends, even when the classroom includes many Black children  Classism: bias that is based on social class. Social class is defined by such factors as income, occupation and education.  Provides special privileges to some people based on their social category.  Ableism: bias against people with disabilities.  can create inequalities for people with disabilities, both in the workplace and in personal relationships  Heterosexism: bias against anyone who is not exclusively heterosexual.  ncourages many people to believe that male-female romantic relationships should be considered normative, and therefore people in same-gender relationships do not have the same rights and privileges  Ageism: bias based on chronological age. Ageism is typically directed toward elderly people  Feminism: principle that values women’s experiences and ideas; feminism also emphasizes that women and men should be socially, economically, and legally equal  Definition does not exclude men. In fact, men as well as women can be feminists.  People mistakenly assume that a feminist must be a person who hates men.  Feminism encompasses a variety of ideas and perspectives. - Four different theoretical approaches to feminism: o Liberal Feminism: people can achieve this goal by passing laws that guarantee equal rights for women and men  emphasize that biological factors have relatively little effect on gender differences.  Women and men who are liberal feminists believe that everyone benefits if we can reduce our culture’s rigid gender roles o Cultural Feminism: emphasizes the positive qualities that are presumed to be stronger in women than in men—qualities such as nurturing and care- taking.  Cultural feminism therefore focuses on gender differences that value women, rather than on the gender similarities of liberal feminism o Radical Feminism: argues that the basic cause of women’s oppression lies deep in the entire sex and gender system, rather than in some superficial laws and policies. o Women- of Color Feminism: other three types of feminism overemphasize gender.  feminists emphasize that feminism must pay attention to other human dimensions su
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