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Chapter 8-10

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PSYC 3480
Erin Ross

Psych of Women – Textbook Notes Chapter 8: Love Relationships  Romantic Love – intense attachments formed between people who are in love  Dating – two people romantically involved and spending a lot of time together  North American Research  Young people = value physical attributes  Older people = value compatibility with partner  Study done by Regan and Berschied (1997) found: - Men and women emphasize physical attractiveness in regards to a sexual partner; although men rank physical attractiveness as number one - In regards to marriage partner both men and women value honesty, good personality and intelligence; women value financial status more than men  Studies done by Urbaniak and Kilan (2003) and Burn and Ward (2005) found: - Women and men value warm, romantic, kind, sensitive and sense of humor in partner - Females prefer men who say they are (kind, attentive and do not go for mucho things)- females more satisfied with their partner if they were low in traditionally masculine characteristics  Cross-Cultural Research  Study between U.S., Russia and Japan found: - Women in all three countries emphasize financial prospects in spouse more likely than men; men in all three countries are more likely to emphasize physical attractiveness  Evolutionary-Psychology Approach = various species gradually change over the course of many generations so that they can adapt better to their environment  Men and women have an evolutionary advantage if they success in passing on their genes to next generation  Men should prefer young, attractive, healthy-looking women because those are the most fertile and can pass on the manes genes to the next generation; this does not have to do with preference for physical attractiveness  Women must make sure that their children are provided with financial services = women look for reliable men with good incomes  Culture had little effect on gender differences in mate selection  Feminist object to this approach  The Social-Roles Approach = men and women occupy different social roles; are socialized differently and experience different social opportunities and social disadvantages  Men and women are equally interested in long-term relationships  In countries where women have limited educational and financial opportunities they prefer high-income men; whereas in countries where women do not experience this they do not, therefore culture does affect mate preference  Gender Comparisons  Women experience a wider range of both positive and negative emotions in relationships rather than men  Research suggests that women perform more (relationship-maintenance work)  Men and women are both more satisfied with love relationship if it is based on friendship  Relationships based on friendship last long and both have a better understanding  Men and women both more satisfied if both partners express their emotions  Mena and women with feminist partners report greater sexual satisfaction and more stable relationships  Breakups  Study suggests that men and women report similar negative emotions and guilt - Women and men both more likely to blame themselves - Equally likely to take alcohol and drugs after breakup - Men more likely to try to distract themselves after breakup - Women somewhat more likely than men to blame their partner  Women feel more joy and relief after breakups  Marriage and Divorce  Women significantly more likely than men to anticipate getting married  Average ages in Canada to get married are 28 = women; 30= men  Women more likely than men to wish they can change some aspects of their marriage  Traditional marriage = husband is more dominant than wife, both partners participate in traditional gender roles  Egalitarian Marriage = both partners share power equally, without traditional gender roles  Marriage and Women of Colour 1. Latinas - Machismo = belief that men must show their manhood by being strong, sexual and violent, dominant over women in relationships; men should not do housework - Marianismo = belief that women must be chaste until marriage, must be passive and long- suffering; giving up own needs to help husband and children – based on catholic representation of Virgin Mary 2. Black Women - Black couples more egalitarian than couples from other ethnic backgrounds 3. Asian American Women - When people emigrate they are likely to encounter conflict between traditional customs from their home country to the contemporary gender roles in North America  Divorce  Become more common; 4 times as high as it was in 1968  Highest rate of divorce is for blacks; lowest rate is for Asian Americans  Lowest for people who have completed college  Four aspects of divorce A) Cohabitation and Divorce B) Decision to Divorce - men most eager to leave a marriage but women more likely to initiate a divorce C) Psychological Effects – depression and anger are most common emotions, can feel relief D) Financial Effects – women’s financial situation is almost always worse, especially if she has children; increase women’s depression and anger  Lesbians and Bisexual Women  Study shows that lesbian women and heterosexual women are similar in everything except self-esteem, lesbian women display more  Emotional closeness is important doe lesbian women in their partners  Lesbian couples have stronger relationship quality and fewer conflicts the heterosexual married couples; psychological intimacy is likely to be strong in lesbian couples  Factors that shape a women’s sexual orientation - Biological factors – may be responsible for a small part for women - The Social Constructionist Approach - influenced by our culture, social norms and situational factors; Social forces and thought processes - The Dynamical Systems Approach – women may experience new sexual feelings that occur in specific situations, then she thinks about these experiences; if these feelings keep occurring then she will eventually create a new perspective about her sexuality; more fluid and complex  Sexual orientations is not clear-cut, it is a continuing process of self-discovery  Single Women  Generally well-adjusted and are frequently satisfied with their single status  Singlism = biased against people who are not married  More freedom and independence Chapter Nine: Sexuality  Essentialism perspective = gender is a basic, stable characteristic that resides within an individual – all women share the same psychological characteristics  Social Constructionist Approach = individuals and cultures construct or invent their own versions of reality based on prior experiences, social interactions and beliefs  breast sensations, clitoris and vagina are all important parts of a women’s sexuality  General Phases of Women’s Sexual Responses 1. Excitement Phase - Women become aroused by touching and erotic thoughts; blood rushes to the genital region causingvasocongestion – which causes swelling of clitoris and libia and produces droplets of moisture in vagina 2. Plateau Phase - Movement of clitoral hood stimulates clitoris because it shortens and draws back under the hood 3. Orgasmic Phase - Between 3 and 10 rapid contractions 4. Resolution Phase - Sexual organs return to their unstimulated size  Emotional closeness and communication are vitally important as well  Gender Comparisons  Men and women are reasonably similar  Men reach organism more quickly than women  Sexual Desire = need to engage in sexual activities for either emotional or physical pleasure  Men: - Think about sex more frequently - Masturbatemore often - Want sexual activities more frequently - Initiate sexual activities more frequently - Are more interested in sexual activities without a romantic commitment - Prefer greater number of sexual partners  Attitudes about Female and Male Sexuality  Men typically have more permissive attitudes toward sexual behaviour then women do  Sexual Double Standard = premarital sex okay for men not for women  More positive ratings of a sexually active male than a sexually active female  Sexual Scripts = describes the social norms for sexual behaviour, which we learn by growing up in a culture  Sexual Assault = unwanted sexual contact  Rape = sexual penetration without individuals consent, obtained by force or by threat of physical harm  Sexual Inform
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