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York University
PSYC 3480
Noreen Stuckless

Psych of Women Notes Chapter 1: Central Concepts In The Psychology Of Women Sex and Gender -Sex is a narrow term that refers only to those inborn biological characteristics relating to reproductions (sex chromosomes or sex organs) -gender refers to the psychological characterizes and social categories that human culture creates -according to the concept of doing gender, you express your gender when you interact with other people; you perceive gender in these other people -provide gender messages by appearance or tone of voice -doing gender emphasizes that gender is an active, dynamic process rather than stable and rigid The Extent of Social Biases -sexism is bias against people on the basis of their gender (ex, person who thinks women cannot be lawyers is sexist) -sexism can be found in many forms such as social behavior, media representations of women and men, and job discrimination -racism is bias against people on the basis of racial or ethnic groups -Classism is a bias that is based on social class. Social class is influenced by income, occupation, education. Classism provides special privileges to some people based on their social category -ableism is bias against people with disabilities -heterosexism (also known as sexual prejudice) refers to a bias against anyone who is not exclusively heterosexual. Heterosexism encourages people to believe that male-female relationships should be considered normal and same gender relationships do not have same rights or privileges -ageism bias based on chronological age (typically directed toward elderly people) Feminist Approaches -feminism, principle that values women’s experiences and ideas; feminism also emphasizes that women and men should be socially, economically, and legally equal -men can be feminists, friends can qualify as feminists, feminism encompasses a variety of ideas and perspectives, not just one feminist viewpoint -four theoretical approaches to feminism: 1) Liberal feminism emphasizes the goal of gender equality, giving women and men the same right and opportunities. This goal can be achieved by passing laws that equal rights for men and women. They believe that everyone benefits if we can reduce culture’s rigid gender roles. 2) Cultural feminism emphasizes positive qualities that are presumed to be strong in women than in men (nurturing, caretaking) Focuses value on women rather on the gender similarities of liberal feminism. They argue society should be restructured to emphasize cooperation rather than aggression 3) Radical feminism argues that basic cause of women’s oppression lies in the entire sex and gender system rather than in laws and policies. They think sexism permeates our society. They argue that our society needs to change its policies on sexuality and on violence against women 4) Women-of-color feminism points out that the other three types of feminism overemphasize gender. They emphasize that feminism should pay attention to ethnicity and social class Psychological Approaches to Gender Similarity and Difference -psychologists when examining gender issues favor either a similarities perspective or a difference perspective The Similarities Perspective -psychologists who emphasize the similarities perspective believe that men and women are similar in their intellectual and social skills. They argue that social forces may create some differences -supporters of the similarities perspective favor liberal feminism. By de-emphasizing gender roles and strengthening equal rights laws. They say, gender similarities will increase still further -according to social constructionism, individuals and cultures construct or invent their own versions of reality, based on proper experiences, social interactions, and beliefs -social constructionists ague that we can never discover reality because our belief system always influences our observations The Differences Perspective -difference perspective argues that men and women are generally different in their intellectual and social abilities. -feminist psychologists who support the differences perspective emphasize women’s positive characteristics that have been undervalued, because they are associated with women -those who favor difference perspective tend to be cultural feminist -if we emphasize gender difference we strengthen people’s stereotypes about gender -Essentialism argues that gender is a bias, unchangeable characteristic that resides within an individual -Essentialists emphasize that women are more concerned than men with caregiving because of their own inborn nature, not because society assigns them to -according to essentialist perspective all women share the same psychological characteristics, very different from the psychological characteristics that all men share -essentialists also emphasis that women’s psychological characteristics are universal and occur in every culture A BEIRF HISTORY OF THE PSYCHOLOGY OF WOMEN -early views about women were negative Early Studies of Gender Comparisons -research was done by men in early years and was often sexist biases -later women joined and psychologist Helen Thompson demonstrated that men and women had similar intellectual abilities -first generation of female psychologists used their research findings to argue that women and men should have equal access to a college education The Emergence of the Psychology of Women as a Discipline -growing interest in women had an impact on the field of psychology -feminist scholars did not realize that the issue of gender was complicated -people sometimes blamed women for their own low status -in determining why women were scarce in the management position researchers constructed two answers 1) women were not assertive enough 2) they were afraid of success The White- Privilege Concept -hidden assumption that White individuals have a special status -White-privilege concept, White people have certain privileges based on their skin color and they take the privilege for granted -people from other ethnic backgrounds lack this special status -white people protest they have never been treated better than people of color A concept related to White privilege can be called the White-as-normative concept, which points out that being White is the normal standard in our culture -each of us has an ethnic heritage Women of Color Latina Women -Latinas/Latinos largest ethnic group in the U.S they prefer the term Hispanic -Mexican Americans refer to themselves as Chicanas or Chicanos Black Women -third largest ethnic group in the U.S -may have arrived recently from Africa or the Caribbean and some may have lived in North America Asian American Women -Many Asian women have professional careers -Women who are Filipino, Korean, and Chinese workers experience stressful labor conditions in North America -Asian Americans are stereotyped as the ideal minority group and often academically successful Native American and First Nations Women -Native American and First Nations people share a common geographic origin and a common history of being invaded, dispossessed, and regulated by White North Americans, but their languages, values and lifestyles have little in common -Native American women struggle as they try to integrate their personal aspirations with the values of their culture Further Perspectives on Ethnicity -Within-group diversity is increased still further because millions of people in the U.S and Canada are biracial or multiracial -multiracial individuals often experience benefits, because they have access to a greater number of cultural communities -intersectionality emphasizes that each person belongs to multiple social groups, based on categories such as ethnicity, gender, sexual orientation, and social class -intersectionality points out that we cannot simply add a person’s social categories together and come up with a clear-cut social identity U.S – Centered Nationalism -U.S.-centered nationalism, the United States is dominant over all other countries in the world, which are believed to have lower status POTENTIAL PROBLEMS AND BIASES IN CURRENT RESEARCH -Biases and inappropriate procedures that can influence each step of research: Formulating the Hypothesis -if theory is biased against women, researchers may expect to find biased results, even before they begin to conduct their study -psychologists may formulate a hypothesis based on previous research that is unrelated to the topic they want to study -final way biases can influence hypothesis formulation concerns the nature of researchers’ questions -biases can influence the psychologist’s’ theoretical orientation, the previous research they consider relevant, and the topics they investigate Designing the Study -early step in designing a research study is selecting the operational definition. -Operational definition describes exactly how researchers will measure a variable (or characteristic) in a study -researchers should test a hypothesis with several different operational definitions to provide a richer perspective on the research question -another bias is the participants -third source of bias in designing a study is the choice of the person who will actually conduct the study -last source of bias is the problem of confounding variables. -cofounding variable is any characteristic other than central variable being studied that is not equivalent under all conditions’ this confounding variable has the potential to influence the study’s results -reason we must be concerned about confounding variables is that we need to compare two groups that are as similar as possible in all relevant characteristics except the central variable we are studying Performing the Study -one bias at this point is called researcher expectancy, the biases that researchers bring to the study can influence the outcome -researchers have expectations about the outcome of their research -expectations of both the researchers and the participants may bias the results and distort the conclusions. As a result conclusions will not be accurate Interpreting the Data -researchers misinterpret data in many ways -Statistical significance means that the results are not likely to occur by chance alone. -sample size has a major influence on statistical significance -Practical significance, means that the results have some meaningful and useful implications for the real world -when researchers interpret the data they have gathered, a second potential problem is that they may ignore alternative explanations -researchers may misinterpret correlational data -researchers make inappropriate generalizations -interpretation phase of research contains several additional possibilities for distorting reality -researchers have been known to ignore practical significance, bypass alternative explanations, interpret correlations, and overgeneralize their findings Communicating the Findings -researchers usually want to report their findings in writing -when researchers summarize their findings they may leave out some results showing females and males had similar scores -biases influence the choice of a title for a research report -after researchers have written a report they send it off to journal editors who decide to publicize Critical Thinking and the Psychology of Women -people must be cautious when they encounter information about gender -need to inspect for biases -Critical thinking has four components 1) Ask thoughtful questions about what you see or hear 2) Look for potential biases at each step of the research process 3) Determine whether the conclusions are supported by the evidence that has been presented 4) Suggest alternative interpretations of the evidence CHAPTER TWO GENDER STEREOTYPES AND OTHER GENDER BIASES -stereotypes can include ethnicity, country of origin, family income, age, and gender -some are less prominent such as a person’s birth order, amount of education, and political beliefs -stereotypes are the beliefs and assumptions that we associate with particular groups of people -Gender stereotypes are the beliefs that we associate with females and males -stereotypes refer to our thought about a social group; these thoughts may not correspond to reality -prejudice is an emotional reaction or attitude toward a particular group of people. Refers to negative attitude but can also refer to a positive attitude -discrimination refers to a biased treatment of a particular group of people -gender bias includes all three issues: gender stereotypes, gender prejudice, and gender discrimination BIASED REPRESENTATIONS OF WOMEN AND MEN -women are considered the “second sex” -inferior to men Gender Biases throughout History The Invisibility of Women in Historical Accounts -Archeologists ignored the fact that women provided most of the diet by gathering vegetables and grains -in early Middle Ages women fought some battles -women are missing from history books because their work was typically confined to home and family Philosophers’ Representation of Women -Philosophers depicted women as inferior to men -Aristotle believed that women are more likely than men to be envious and to tell lies -Jean-Jacques Rousseau argued that women were to please men and to be useful to them -Enlightenment philosophers were not enlightened about the roles of women -John Stuart Mill argued that women should have equal rights and equal opportunities Gender Biases in Religion and Mythology -women are treated differently from men in traditional religion and in mythology -women portrayed with negative characteristics -(example with Adam and Eve…woman came from man therefore second) -in the New Testaments woman should be silent in churches -Jewish woman have become Rabbis -Yin and Yan (Chinese belief) the feminine yin represents darkness, ignorance, and evil -The yang (male) represents light, intellect, and goodness -Muhammad (Muslim) emphasizes the equal treatment of woman -In Hinduism, a woman is defined in terms of her husband -There are several conflicting views of woman 1) Women are evil (bring harm to men) 2) Women are terrifying sorceresses (can cast spells) 3) Women are virtuous (can be virtuous and saintly when nurturing men and small children) -androcentrism or normative-male problem: men are the standard of comparison, where women are the “the second sex” Gender Biases in Language -language encourages second-class status for women Terms Used for Women -female member of a pair of words has a much more negative, sexualized, or trivial connotation than the male member does -language may infantilize women (when they call a female girl or gal but never call male boy) The Masculine Generic -masculine generic (sometimes called the androcentric generic) is the use of masculine nouns and pronouns to refer to all human beings-both males and females-instead of man alone -masculine generic terms are not actually gender neutral -masculine generic issue also has important implications for people’s career choices Gender Biases in the Media Stereotyped Representations 1) Women are relatively invisible: women are underrepresented in the media 2) Women are relatively inaudible: women are not seen much, and they are heard even less 3) Women are seldom shown working outside the home: only men are shown in a work setting 4) Women are shown doing housework: commercials seldom show men taking care of children 5) Women and men are represented differently: the media are likely to treat men more seriously than women 6) Women’s bodies are used differently from men’s bodies: media rarely show images of overweight women except from weight loss ads. Women wear seductive clothes. Men are portrayed strong and muscular. Physical attractiveness is more important for women than for men 7) Women of color are underrepresented, and they are often shown in a particularly biased way: most women of color are either “good girls” or “bad girls”. Women of color are both underrepresented and misrepresented by the media 8) Lower-social class women are underrepresented, and they are often shown in a particularly biased way: media researchers ignore social class. Half of the lower income women featured in magazines are black The Effects of Stereotyped Representations 1) Yes, the media do reflect reality 2) Yes, the media can actually influence reality by changing some people’s attitudes and cognitive performance. -The media can also influence our attitudes toward other people -The media can influence people’s cognitive performance PEOPLE’S BELIEFS ABOUT WOMEN AND MEN The Content of Stereotypes -gender stereotypes extend to a wide range of human behaviors -communion emphasizes a concern for your relationship with other people (gentle, warm) Stereotypes-about Women and Men from Different Ethnic Groups -people create stereotypes about women and men from different ethnic groups -people combine information about the gender and ethnicity of the target, so that they create a variety of gender stereotypes -we create subtypes within each of these gender ethnicity categories -intersectionality emphasizes that each person belongs to many social groups, based on characteristics such as gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and social class Subject Variables That Could Influence Stereotypes -men and women hold similar gender stereotypes, but men’s stereotypes are somewhat traditional -within each gender, there are individual differences in the strength of these stereotypes -there is no consistent relationship between a person’s country of residence and the overall strength of his or her stereotypes -men have stronger stereotypes than women do Implicit Gender Stereotypes -Implicit gender stereotypes are the automatic stereotypes you reveal when you are not aware that your gender stereotypes are being assessed, this research uses the Implicit Association Test (IAT) -IAT is based on a principle that people can mentally pair words together very rapidly if they are related The Complexity of Contemporary Sexism -components of prejudice: attitudes toward a women’s competence, attitudes toward women’s “pleasantness, and ambivalent sexism Attitudes toward Women’s Competence -some research has failed to find negative attitudes about women’s competence -males are more likely than females to downgrade women -people are more likely to rate women less favorably than men when they don’t have much information about the person’s qualifications -bias against women may be strongest when a woman is acting in a stereotypically masculine fashion Attitudes toward Women’s Pleasantness -people think women are pleasant and nice -prejudice can be positive or negative Ambivalent Sexism -Peter glick and Susan Fiske have examined the complexity of seism with a scale called the Ambivalent Sexism Inventory. They argue that sexism is a prejudice based on a deep ambivalence toward women rather than a uniform dislike of women -hostile sexism, the more blatant kind of sexism, is based on the idea that women should be subservient to men and should "know their place." It is directed to non-traditional women -benevolent sexism is a more subtle kind do sexism that argues for women's special niceness and purity. It is directed toward traditional woman -benevolent sexism emphasizes that women are different from men and that they are also weaker -ambivalent sexism combines both hostile sexism and benevolent sexism -ambivalent Sexism Inventory highlights both the subtlety and the complexity of contemporary sexism. It also illustrates that the two different kinds of sexism are widespread throughout the world Gender discrimination Discrimination in North America -one category of sexist remarks emphasized traditional gender stereotyped remarks. Another category involved demeaning comments and behaviours. Third category included sexual comment and behaviours Discrimination in Other Cultures -women in Scandinavian countries experience less discrimination Heterosexism -our culture emphasis on strict gender categorization has an important implication for love relationships -gender categories encourage people to believe that a person from the category "male" must fall in love with a person from the other category, "female" -a lesbian is a woman who is psychologically, emotionally, and sexually attracted to other women -a gay male is a man psychologically, emotionally, and sexually attracted to males -a bisexual is someone who is psychologically, emotionally, and sexually attracted to both men and women -heterosexism is a belief system that devalues lesbians, gays, and bisexuals or any group that is not heterosexual -sexual prejudice is a negative attitude that individuals hold against someone because of her or his sexual orientation Examples of Heterosexism -many different types of heterosexism reveal that our culture values people who love someone from the other gender category, rather than someone from the same gender category -gays and lesbians frequently experience interpersonal discrimination-heterosexist biases, verbal harassment, and physical assault Factors Correlated with Heterosexism -men are also much more likely than women to commit anti- gay hate crimes -people generally have more negative attitudes toward lesbian women -people with traditional gender roles are more likely than non-traditional people to express sexual prejudice THE PERSONAL CONSEQUENCES OF GENDER STEROTYPES Gender Stereotypes and Cognitive Errors -one personal consequence of gender stereotypes is that they encourage us to make cognitive errors- that is, errors in our thought processes -social cognitive approach, stereotypes are belief systems that guide and simplify the way we process information, including information about gender -one cognitive process that seems nearly inevitable is our tendency to drive the people we meet into social groups -the social cognitive approach argues that stereotypes help us simplify and organize the world by creating categories -major way we categorize is solely based on gender -people tend to exaggerate the contrast between women and men -people tend to see the male as normative and the female as nonstandard -people tend to make biased judgements on the basis of stereotypes -people tend to selectively remember information that is consistent with gender stereotypes Exaggerating the Contrast between Women and Men -we tend to see all males as being similar, all females being similar, and the two gender categories as being different from each other; this tendency is called gender polarization -gender polarization encourages people to downgrade individuals who deviate from this rigid role definition -gender polarization often creates an artificial gap between women and men The Normative Male -normative male concept (androcentrism) means that the male experience is considered normal Making Biased Judgements about Females and Males -several variables influence our tendency to make stereotyped judgments -Attributions are explanations about the causes of person’s behavior -research on attributions show that people think women’s success is based on effort -stereotypes often simplify and bias the way we think about people who belong to social categories -we may think males experience to be standard and females experience is a deviation from that standard -research in social cognition emphasizes that: people’s memory for gender-stereotyped characteristics Memory for Personal Characteristics -the research in social cognition shows that we are likely to recall stereotype- constituent material when we have other tasks to do at the same time, when distractions are weak we may remember material inconsistent with our stereotype Gender Stereotypes and Behavior -stereotypes can influence behavior through a self-fulfilling prophesy: Your expectations about someone may lead him or her to act in ways that confirm you original expectation -our own self-concepts and abilities are usually stronger determinants of behavior than are the expectations of other people Applying Gender Stereotypes to Ourselves -stereotypes tell how men and women should behave Assessing Self-Concepts about Gender -Bem Sex-Role Inventory (BSRI) Sandra Be designed this test to assess how people rate themselves on a variety of psychological characteristics -a person who scores high on both scales would be classified as androgynous -androgyny makes us believe that the solution to gender bias lies in changing the individual Internalizing Gender Stereotypes -a person’s identity depends on social categories -people do not have simple gender identity it depends on factors such as ethnicity and social context CHAPTER 3 INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD -Gender typing includes how children acquire their knowledge about gender and how they develop their gender-related personality characteristics, preferences, skills, behaviors, and self-concepts BACKGROUND ON GENDER DEVELOPMENT -prenatal period: time before birth -infancy period between birth and 18 months Prenatal Sex Development -egrdhas 23 chromosomes combines with a sperm -23 pair of chromosome known as the sex chromosomes which determine whether male or female -22 chromosomes pairs determine physiological and psychological characteristics -the mother has the eggs and has X sex chromosome -father fertilizes egg with sperm and carries either Y or X chromosome -XX = girl XY= boy Typical Prenatal Development -female and male embryos differ in their chromosomes -until 5 weeks after conception male and female embryos are identical in all other characteristics -each human fetus has two sets of internal reproductive systems: Mullerian ducts develop in females into uterus, egg ducts, part of the vagina. Wolffian ducts develop into the male internal reproductive system which includes prostate gland and the vesicles for semen -sex glands (gonads) of males and females also look identical during the first weeks after conception -for XY the Y chromosome sends message to develop male parts and for XX develop female parts -3 months after conception hormones send message to develop external genitals -testes secrete androgen (high levels create Wolffian ducts) -ovaries secrete estrogen -four additional processes then lead to the differentiation of females and males: 1)the development of the internal reproductive system 2)the development of the gonads 3)the production of hormones 4)the development of the external genitals Atypical Prenatal Development -An intersexed individual has genitals that are not clearly female or male. They do not have the chromosomes or an internal reproductive system, gonads, hormones, and external genitals that are either needed for female or for male -one atypical pattern is congenital adrenal hyperplasia where females receive too much androgen which cause their genitals to look like a boys at birth -a second atypical pattern is androgen insensitivity syndrome where boys make normal androgen but a genetic condition makes their bodies not respond to androgen and the genitals look like a girls Parental Preferences about Sex of Children -parents prefer males as their first born rather than a female -in some cultures women ask for selective abortion when they find out the fetus is a female People’s Stereotypes about Infant Girls and Boys -boys receive action figures and sports recognition -girls more humbly girly recognition -boys known as strong while females known as weak Theories of Gender Development -one early explanation of gender development was Sigmund Freud’s elaborate psychoanalytic theory -perspectives emphasize two different processes that operate during child development: the social learning approach and the cognitive developmental approach -children acquire their information about gender by both of these important methods: 1)In the social learning approach, children learn gender-related behaviours from other people 2)In the cognitive developmental approach, children actively synthesize and create their own thoughts 0about gender The Social Learning Approach -the social learning approach argues that the traditional principles of learning explain an important part of gender development -social learning approach proposes two major mechanisms for explaining how girls learn to act “feminine” and how boys learn to act “masculine”: 1)Children are rewarded for “gender-appropriate” behavior, and they are punished for “gender- inappropriate” behavior 2)Children watch and imitate the behavior of people from their own gender category -parents respond positively when children play “gender consistently” play patterns -children also lean by watching others and imitation them, (modelling) -direct learning, means of rewards and punishments, is an important way that children learn “gender- appropriate” behavior The Cognitive Developmental Approach -cognitive developmental approach emphasizes thoughts -cognitive developmental approach argues that children are active thinkers who seek information from their environment; children also try to make sense of this information and organize it in a coherent fashion -one important concept in the cognitive developmental approach is a schema which is a general concept that we use to organize our thoughts and attitudes about a topic -gender schemas: organize information into two categories male or female -major step in gender development is gender identity, labelling yourself as either a boy or girl General Comments about Theories of Gender Development 1)Children’s behaviors are important, as proposed by the social learning approach a.Children are rewarded and punished for gender- related behavior b.Children model their behavior after same-gender individuals 2)Children’s thoughts are important, as proposed by the cognitive developmental theory a.Children develop powerful gender schemas b.Children use gender schemas to evaluate themselves, other people and other things -social learning and the cognitive developmental approaches work together to account for children’s development of gender typing FACTORS THAT SHAPE GENDER TYPING Parents -Parents often react to older children on the basis of each child's personality characteristics in addition to his or her -Parents sometimes encourage gender type activities and conservational patterns -Parents treat sons and daughters somewhat differently with respect to the social characteristics: aggression and independence Gender- typed activities -Parents and gender type activities when they assigned chores to the children -parents assign girls to domestic chores while the assigned boys to outdoor work -Parents often encourages children to develop gender typed interests by providing different kinds of toys for daughters than for sons -girls are allowed greater flexibility than boys as far as the toys they play with -Adults tend to interpret feminine behavior in a boy as a sign of gay tendencies but they are less likely to view masculine behavior in a girl as a sign of lesbian tendencies -parents seem to promote some gender type activities in their children Conversations about emotions -mothers talk more to infant daughter's than to infant son -with older children parents are especially likely to talk to daughters about other people and about emotion -parents discussed different emotions with their daughters then with their son -mothers are likely to discuss sadness in detail with their daughters in order to discover exactly why the daughters had been sad on a particular okay -fathers are likely to discuss sadness with their daughters then with their sons -Parents tend to pressure boys to avoid expressing fear or sadness Attitudes about aggression -some studies show that parents are more likely to discourage aggression in the daughters but some studies show a few differences -parents treat preschool girls and boys similarly -By observing parents children often learned that physical aggression and power are boy things not girl things Attitudes about independent -parents tend to give the same kind of verbal directions to the daughters and their sons -when children reach school age parents are also more likely to provide cautions to their daughters than to their sons -parents allow their sons to be more independent Individual differences in parents' gender typing -parents vary in the kinds of messages they provide to the children -some parents treat sons and daughters differently whereas some try to avoid gender bias -ethnic groups, social class can have an important influence on the results -there are additional forces that are responsible for gender type including three factors that reveal greater gender bias: by peers, schools, and the media Peers -peer group: children approximately their own age -peers seem to be more influential than parents in emphasizing gender typing Peers encourage gender typing in four major ways: 1)children reject their peers who act in a non-stereotypical fashion 2) they encourage gender segregation 3) they are prejudiced against children of the other gender 4) they have different standards for treating boys and girls Rejection of non-traditional behavior -Women who had been tomboys as children often report that their peers were influential in convincing them to act more feminine -non-traditional boys experience even stronger rejection than girls do -peers contribute to an unwritten boys' code a set of rigid rules about how boys should speak and behave Gender segregation -gender segregation: tendency to associate with other children of the same gender -one problem with gender segregation is that these single gender groups encourage children to acquire and practice gender stereotyped behaviour -A major problem with gender segregation that children who grow up playing with only same gender peers Will not learn the broad range of skills they need to work well with both female and male -as romantic relationships develop in early adolescence boys and girls then increase the amount of time they spend together Gender prejudice -peers encourage gender typing is with prejudice against members of gender -gender prejudice arises from children's clear cut gender schema and it reinforces children's belief that females and males have a different kinds of people Different standards -peers promote gender typing is that they use different standards when they interact with boys that they use with girls -physical attractiveness is important for females and pretty girls and women is better treated -boys learned a physical attractiveness is not relevant to their lives -ch
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