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PSYC 3480 (233)
Chapter Midterm

Exam 2 Notes (Chapter 6-10)

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PSYC 3480
Noreen Stuckless

Gender Comparisons in Social and Personality Characteristics Communication PatternsResearch shows mixed results but does not support the talkative female stereotypeMen tend to interrupt more frequently than women doGender differences are often substantial in certain kinds of nonverbal behaviour such as personal space body position and smiling o In general women have a smaller personalspace zone than men o Women typically gaze more at their conversational partners than men do o Women smile more than men doSocial tension is a strong predictor of smiling in womenWomen are more likely than men to be aware that they are using a false smile o When people judge adults facial expressions they are more likely to detect anger in a mans facial expressionsDecoding abilityrefers to your skill in looking at another persons nonverbal behaviour and figuring out what emotion that person is feeling o Females are more likely thank males to decode nonverbal expression accuratelyPotential Explanations for Gender Differences in CommunicationMarianne LaFrance argues that the most effective explanation for gender differences in communication is that men have more power and social status in our culture o Low power individuals must be especially attentive to powerful individuals so that they can respond appropriatelyJudith Hall argues that our culture provides roles expectation and socialization experiences that teach males and females how to communicateCharacteristics Related to Helping and CaringMales are considered more helpful in activities requiring heroismFemales are considered more helpful and generous in offering assistance and emotional support to family members and close friendsGender similarities in altruismSocial rolea cultures shared expectation about the behaviour of a group that occupies a particular social category o Men typically have greater size and strength than women which means that they are more likely to perform activities requiring these physical characteristics o Womens social role is partly based on their giving birth to childrenTheir kind of heroism is less likely to require physical strength and more likely to occur in privateYou show empathy when you o Understand the emotion that another person is feeling o You experience that same emotiono You are concerned about that persons wellbeingFemales and males are equally empathic when the operational definition requires physiological measuresFemales and males are equally empathic when the operational definition requires nonverbal measuresFemales are more empathic than males when the operational definition is based on selfreportMoral Judgments about Social RelationshipsGillian and other theorists have argued that women are not morally inferior to men but that they do speak in a different voice o Men tend to support a justice approacheach individual is part of a hierarchy in which some people have more power and influence than otherso Women tend to support a care approachindividuals are interrelated with other people in a web of connections o Gillians approach favours the differences perspectiveMost research on moral judgments has supported the similarities perspectiveIf you emphasize social justice you are concerned about the wellbeing of a large group of people who experience discrimination and dangerFriendshipChildren show gender segregationGirls are more likely than boys to engage in selfdisclosure with their friendsBoth women and men are more likely to offer sympathy or advice to a worried friend rather than changing the subject or telling the friend not to worry o Men are somewhat more likely than women to blame their samegender friends for a problem they havePhysical Aggression vs Relational AggressionPhysical aggressionintentional aggression that could physically harm another personRelational aggressionaggression that could harmanother person through intentionally manipulating interpersonal relationshipso Often more common in females than in males though some studies report no gender differencesIn the case of provoked aggression both men and women are likely to respond aggressivelyIf women see themselves as weak and nonaggressive some of them may believe that they cant defend themselves against mens aggression
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