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Chapter 2

Psychology of Women Chapter 2.docx

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PSYC 3480
Noreen Stuckless

Psychology of Women Chapter 2  Background: o Stereotypes:  Are the beliefs that we associate with particular groups or ppl o Gender stereotypes:  Beliefs we associate with men and women o Prejudice:  Negative attitude or emotional reaction toward a particular group or ppl o Discrimination:  Refers to biased treatment of a particular group or ppl o Gender bias:  3 issues: gender stereotypes, gender prejudice, gender discrimination  Biased representation of women and men: o Women are often represented as being inferior to men o Gender biases in history:  Invisibility in history:  Women missing from historical events  Typically confined house  Philosophies representation of women  Depicted inferior to men  Aristotle: believed that they couldn’t develop on rational beings  Mill : women should have equal rights o Gender biases in religion  Usually god personified as he, his  Man created first  Language biases in he, man, etc... o Gender biases in media:  Stereotypes:  1. Women are relatively invisible o 15-25% on TV are women o 20% news stories o 20% sportscasters o 10-28% of columnists o 60-70% men actors o Between 65-2001 only 3 winning films focused on a woman o Rarely see women athletes on TV  2. Women are inaudible: o 5% host on radio o TV ads voice  3. Women are seldom shown working outside the home: o Show men employed women in household commercials o Finding a boyfriend and independence an issue  4. Women are shown doing housework o On TV o Capture reality  5. Women and men are represented differently: o Women in office won’t get elected without being analyzed in the press  6. Women’s bodies are used differently from men’s: o Magazines / TV rarely show fat women  7. Women of color are underrepresented and they are often shown in a particularly biased way: o Ex: blacks seldom seen in romantic relationship  8. Lower social class women are underrepresented and they are often shown in a particular biased way o TV /media primarily feature middle-class or wealthy individuals o Considered acceptable if show low-income women if they are promiscuous/dysfunctional families  The effects of stereotyped representations  Media reflect reality that women are often unseen/unheard ...  More likely to do housework  Media can influence reality by changing beliefs  Adversitment can influence gender-role attitudes  Media can influence how we judge other ppl  Content of stereotypes: o Most believe males get higher grades o Agency:  Describes a concern with your own self-interests  Self confident/competitive are usually masculine; o Communion:  Emphasizes a concern for your relationship with other ppl  Gentle/warm more feminine  Stereotypes abt women and men from different ethnic groups: o Create our own subtypes within each gender-ethnic categories  Factors influencing them: o Subject- the person which holds the stereotypes o Subject variables are sometimes important in research abt gender o Typically mean and women hold similar gender stereotypes, but men’s stereotypes are somewhat more traditional o Within each gender however there are substantial individual differences in the strength of these stereotypes o All have complex influences on ppls stereotypes o The consistency of the gender stereotypes is more prominent than any differences among groups  Implicit gender stereotypes: o Explicit:  you supply when you are aware that you are being tested  May underestimate their true stereotypes o Implicit:  You reveal when you are not aware that your gender stereotypes are being assessed  Ppl can pair words in association of underlying stereotypes quickly  Ppl will respond to gender type association quickly without hesitation  Complexity of contemporary sexism: o In contrast, present-day sexism is typically less obvious and more subtle, elusive and complex o Prejudice components:  1. Attitudes towards women’s competence  2. Towards women’s pleasantness  3. A related topic, recent scale designed to test complicated ambivalent sexism is now common  Attitudes towards competence: o 1. Men are more likely to downgrade women o 2. Ppl will rate women less favourably than men when same qualifications o 3. Evaluators downgrade women; stronger if evaluators are men of course  Women are more likely to be evaluated by experts who may be biased o 4. Bias against women may be strongest when a woman is acting in a stereotypically masculine way  Girl who was hard driving, was criticized for being too macho manlike  If they act to stereotypically womanly they’ll get criticised and v.v.  Attitudes toward women’s pleasantness: o Pleasant and nice o Compared to men women typically receive more positive ratings on these scales  Ambivalent sexism o Argue that sexism is a prejudice based on a deep ambivalence toward women rather than on a uniform dislike of women o Hostile sexism:  Blatant  Women should be subservient  Directed to non-traditional women  Female professionals and feminists o Benevolent sexism:  Subtle  Women’s special niceness and purity  Traditional women  Homemakers  Gender discrimination in interpersonal interactions:
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