PSYC 3480 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia, Social Learning Theory, Prenatal Development

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24 Apr 2012
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Psychology for Women Chapter 3
Gender Development
o Gender typing:
How children acquire their knowledge abt gender and how they develop their
personality characteristics, preferences, skills, behaviours, and self-concepts
o Prenatal period:
Time before birth
o Infancy:
Between birth and 18 months
o Prenatal sex development:
Sex chromosomes: 23rd pair of chromosomes determine embryo which will be
female or male
Mother always supplies x
Male either x/y
Xx= female
Xy= male
o Typical development:
Gonads look similar in beginning 6 weeks after contraception
At about 10 weeks the gonads develop into female ovaries
Males:
Secrete 2 substances:
1. Mullerian regression hormone which shrinks the female ducts
2.androgen hormone which make the wollfian ducts
o Also encourages growth of external genitals
Females:
Ovaries begin to make estrogen
Differentiating Development:
1. Development of internal reproductive systems
2. Development of gonads
3. Production of hormones
4. Development of external genitals
o Atypical development:
Intersexed: genitals not clearly female and not clearly male
No matching chromosomal pattern
Androgen-insensitivity syndrome:
XY(male) produce normal amounts of androgen, but a genetic defect
makes their bodies not respond to it
No penis growth
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia:
XX(female) receive as much androgen as males do during prenatal,
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Causing to look masculine at birth
Traditional method of surgery
Peoples responses:
o Favouritism towards boys is so strong, India/Korea they seek determination and
abortions of females
o Chinese 120 males for every 100 females
o Turkey consider females guests until marriage
Stereotypes about infants:
o Parents treat them differently
o In a gender appropriate manner
o Physical appearances/toys/reward/emotions etc...
o 2/3 studies show one gender-label effect; labelling boy or girl has an effect on person
rating
Largest when judging physical appearance
Smallest when judging achievements/ personality traits
o Social constructionism:
Argues that we invent our own versions of reality based on our prior
experiences and beliefs
Ex: female is a gentle, delicate baby
Theories of gender development:
o Emphasize 2 different processes that operate during child development:
1.social learning approach:
Children learn gender-related behaviours from other ppl\
2.cognitive developmental approach:
Children actively synthesize and create own thoughts about gender
o Social learning approach:
Focuses on behaviours
Traditional learning principles explain an important part of gender development
Proposes 2 main mechanisms for we act the way we do:
1. Children are awarded for their ‘gender appropriate ‘behaviours/
punished for their v.v. behaviours
2.children watch and imitate behaviour of other ppl of their own gender
o Modelling: imitating; will do to ppl of own gender and ppl who
are praised for their behaviour
o Observe others and internalize info, then imitate
o Cognitive Developmental approach:
Focuses on thoughts
Children are active thinkers and seek info from environment
Try to see environment and make sense of it in coherence
Schema:
General concept that we use to organize out thoughts of a topic
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