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Chapter 3

Psychology for Women Chapter 3.docx

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PSYC 3480
Noreen Stuckless

Psychology for Women Chapter 3  Gender Development o Gender typing:  How children acquire their knowledge abt gender and how they develop their personality characteristics, preferences, skills, behaviours, and self-concepts o Prenatal period:  Time before birth o Infancy:  Between birth and 18 months o Prenatal sex development:  Sex chromosomes: 23 pair of chromosomes determine embryo which will be female or male  Mother always supplies x  Male either x/y  Xx= female  Xy= male o Typical development:  Gonads look similar in beginning 6 weeks after contraception  At about 10 weeks the gonads develop into female ovaries  Males:  Secrete 2 substances:  1. Mullerian regression hormone which shrinks the female ducts  2.androgen hormone which make the wollfian ducts o Also encourages growth of external genitals  Females:  Ovaries begin to make estrogen  Differentiating Development:  1. Development of internal reproductive systems  2. Development of gonads  3. Production of hormones  4. Development of external genitals o Atypical development:  Intersexed: genitals not clearly female and not clearly male  No matching chromosomal pattern  Androgen-insensitivity syndrome:  XY(male) produce normal amounts of androgen, but a genetic defect makes their bodies not respond to it  No penis growth  Congenital adrenal hyperplasia:  XX(female) receive as much androgen as males do during prenatal,  Causing to look masculine at birth  Traditional method of surgery  Peoples responses: o Favouritism towards boys is so strong, India/Korea they seek determination and abortions of females o Chinese 120 males for every 100 females o Turkey consider females guests until marriage  Stereotypes about infants: o Parents treat them differently o In a gender appropriate manner o Physical appearances/toys/reward/emotions etc... o 2/3 studies show one gender-label effect; labelling boy or girl has an effect on person rating  Largest when judging physical appearance  Smallest when judging achievements/ personality traits o Social constructionism:  Argues that we invent our own versions of reality based on our prior experiences and beliefs  Ex: female is a gentle, delicate baby  Theories of gender development: o Emphasize 2 different processes that operate during child development:  1.social learning approach:  Children learn gender-related behaviours from other ppl\  2.cognitive developmental approach:  Children actively synthesize and create own thoughts about gender o Social learning approach:  Focuses on behaviours  Traditional learning principles explain an important part of gender development  Proposes 2 main mechanisms for we act the way we do:  1. Children are awarded for their ‘gender appropriate ‘behaviours/ punished for their v.v. behaviours  2.children watch and imitate behaviour of other ppl of their own gender o Modelling: imitating; will do to ppl of own gender and ppl who are praised for their behaviour o Observe others and internalize info, then imitate o Cognitive Developmental approach:  Focuses on thoughts  Children are active thinkers and seek info from environment  Try to see environment and make sense of it in coherence  Schema:  General concept that we use to organize out thoughts of a topic  At young age children create gender schemas  They organize females and males into two categories  Children actively work to make sense of their own gender  Gender identity: girls realization they are a girl and v.v.  Girls prefer stereotypically feminine activities because these activities are consistent with their female gender identity o General comments on theories together:  1. Children behaviour are important as proposed by social learning theory  A. Children are rewarded and punished for gender-related behaviours  B. Children model after same-gender individuals  2. Children’s thoughts are important as proposed by cognitive theory  A. Children develop powerful gender schemas  B. Children use gender schemas to evaluate selves other ppl n other things  Factors that shape gender typing:  Parents:  Parents react stereotypically because they don’t know their children’s true traits  Parents react to toddlers on basis of personality rather than gender after time o Gender-typed activities:  Assigned domestic chores  Asia: girls perform certain more time-consuming chores than boys (time for school work)  Parent often encourage children to develop gender-typed interests by providing toys  Girls more flexibility; boys avoid girly toys  Likely to discourage sons to play with barbies; but not girl with truck  Fathers more likely to encourage daughters to play with stereotypical toys for both sexes o Conversations about emotions:  More likely discussed with girls  Mothers have more of an emotional fashion of talking about sadness and emotion as opposed to fear  Fathers n mother more likely to discuss sadness with daughters than sons o Aggression attitudes:  Parents more likely to discourage aggression in daughters than sons  Some kids copy parents and get aggression from fathers o Independency attitudes:  Parents encourage sons to explore activities  Overprotect daughters  More independence in boys encouraged than girls o Individual differences in parents gender typing:  More time talking about sadness with daughter than with sons  African American mothers tend to raise children in a less-stereotyped attitude  Few make effort to treat in a gender fair attitude  Ethnicity doesn’t have a clear cut influence  However non-traditional parents treat that way  Peers: o Peer group:  Other children of approx same age o More influent
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