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Chapter 6

Psychology for Women Chapter 6..docx

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PSYC 3480
Noreen Stuckless

Psychology for Women Chapter 6 Gender comparisons in social and personality characteristics  Social constructionist approach- we invent, we comprise our ideas because of the realities we are exposed to o Focuses on language and how we categorize our experiences of gender o Its objective, depends on how we define the terms, and person displaying the behaviour  How we view emotions/aggression  Social setting has an important influence on size of gender differences in social and personality characteristics o 1. Gender differences are largest when other ppl are present  Women will act to nearby baby; if other are present o 2. Differences are generally largest when gender is prominent and other shared roles are minimized  I.e. at a singles bar gender is emphasized/prominent/ little share o 3. Largest differences when behaviour requires specific gender related skills  Men will change a tire; because traditional for them to  Communication patterns: o Communication- verbal or communication with words o Stereotype that women are ‘more talkative’ o Communication can be nonverbal –eye movements, hands, tone, facial, distance  Can convey messages clearly with power and emotions  Verbal: o Within each gender there is much variation; not all from mars vs. Venus o Talkativeness:  Stereotype being women chatter  Mena and women equally talkative in interviews  Men are more in classroom settings  Research basically shows mixed results o Interruptions:  Men interrupt more  Men of high status interrupt low status women  Men interrupt more with strangers/ and in competitive tasks  Gender differences may be minimal in other settings o Language style:  Women’s language is different  More subtle differences  Men use swear/obscene words more often  Minimal differences seen in politeness and in writing  Women appear more unsure; more likely around men; with women very sure o o Content of language:”  Much similarity on content; Only one they rlly differed on is sports  Gender differences are small when other roles are emphasized  Men and women at conference both showed status and power relayed just as much as the other  Stereotypes(result from lack of info) may inhibit a competent woman’s comments in initial meetings  As time goes on they appreciate; less gender based as convo drags on  Nonverbal communications: o Extremely important ion conveying messages, emphasis, emotions, o Personal space:  Invisible boundary created not to invade during convo  2 women typically close than female males  High status vs. low status  Executives most likely men have spacious offices, while women have crowded offices o Body posture:  Develop early in life  Females keep legs together; men legs apart hands away from bodies  Men relaxed; women contained  Men use more personal space and physical space to speak o Gaze:  Females gaze more than men  During childhood; young women look at other person in convos  Eye contact uncommon in men o Facial expression:  Substantial ; women smile more than men  Stronger gender differences in strangers; when ppl pose  Women and men same in candid photos  Men does not smile to encourage man; while women may give men a sense of competence  Women often smile because of hiding embarrassment or abuse  Interpretation also varies in how we see faces  Angry woman seen as afraid as opposed to angry man seen as angry  See more sadness in females anger pose; more anger than sadness in males o Decoding ability:  Refers to competence in looking at another’s nonverbal behaviour and deciphering their feelings  Females more likely to decode properly  During infancy is seen better in women; childhood too; adults  Women better at decoding vocal cues  Potential explanations for gender differences in communication: o Power and social status:  Men having more power will talk more smiles less etc...  Less powerful listen and smile  Decoding-male assistant needs to be vigilant of bosses emotions while opposite is not true at all; i.e. class and decoding correlation  Our society promote men as power women as less so; therefore men will use it  Also showed similar smiling patterns when same role shared o Social learning explanations:  Argue that status has nothing to do with decoding; culture provides the social constructs and teach males/females how to communicate  Girls n boys learn what n when to smile, how to interpret and what they spell out o Conclusions:  Both perspectives partially correct  Social learning seems better in respect to decoding  Men should profit from adopting some of the strategies that are usual with women  Characteristics related it helping and caring: o Stereotypes include men helping in physical; women nurturing help o For long time researcher ignored this study o Women choose jobs more invisibly nurturing(social work); men more physically (docs)  Altruism: o Providing unselfish help for others in need without anticipating rewards o Gender similarities although men do more dangerous helping than women o Researchers found no gender differences in responses to the hypothetical scenario not involving danger o Heroism-risking one life for others welfare  9% females  61% were righteous ppl who saved Jews from Nazis  57% kidney donors were women  Women somewhat more likely than men to undergo pain and potential medial threats for others o Social roles-cultures shared expectation of behaviour in males n females  Men have strength; women nurturance  Women’s social role based on their giving birth, likely to take care; heroism of lesser type  Women careful to conceal heroism  Nurturance: o Helping to someone who is younger or less competent o Women rate selves higher obviously o When operational def. Is self report; women show more o Preschool girl scored higher than boys in their amount of nurturance toward baby, interest, kissing and holding o Some parents tolerant of seeing their sons being mother like in caring for infants  Empathy: o Understand emotions other is feeling, when u experience the same o 1. Both are equally in operational definition of psychological measures(heart rate) o 2. Both equally empathetic when o.d. is of nonverbal measures (facial. Vocal) o 3.women are more empathetic in o.d. of self report; men less likely to report truth there o Far from universal results, o.d. is imperative  Moral judgements about social relationships: o Theoretical background: o Differences perspective- women undervalued; exaggerate differences; mutually exclusive traits o Cultural feminism-minimize difference; similar; consistent with liberal feminism  Deemphasizes gender roles, social schemas, laws , status o Gilligan  -Men are more likely to develop sophisticated levels of moral development  Provided feminist approach to moral development  Women are not morally inferior to men; they just speak a different voice  Justice approach:  Individual is part of hierarchy which has power and moral decisions  Care approach:  Individuals are interrelated with one another and are in a web of connex  Women tend to favour this one; base their connections on others  Many feminists embraced her ideas; especially Appealing to non psychologists  Psychologist rule that men and women show similar moral reasoning o Subsequent research:  Women more likely than men to adopt a care perspective  Most result support similarities perspective  Women saw care more important than justice dilemmas
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