Textbook Notes (368,425)
Canada (161,877)
York University (12,845)
Psychology (3,584)
PSYC 3480 (233)
Chapter 7

Psychology for Women Chapters 7..docx

8 Pages
149 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 3480
Professor
Noreen Stuckless
Semester
Winter

Description
Psychology for Women Chapter 7  Women and work  Background factors o Working women: o 1. Employed women - salary o 2. Nonemployed women- unpaid; volunteer o Large increase in women’s employment o Schools used to cling only to men; now women are docs n lawyers o Still face disadvantages  General info about employed women: o Educational upbringing effects job or no; high correlation o Correlation used to be if she was young and had children o Immigrants face barriers to employment o Other countries credits may not be accredited here o Many immigrants have little formal ed o Likely to find assembly line type jobs o Asians show 47% women had good ed., compared to 30% of others o Parental status and ethnicity not related to employment  Women and welfare: o Previous aid program was for women who couldn’t provide for children o New program came and limited welfare for 5 yrs o New program doesn’t promote education o Varies on states; some support ed some not o Lesser ed will result in cognitive problems most likely for their kids o Short-sighted new program affects women and their children  Discrimination in hiring patterns: o Test: same resume; diff name f/m- higher hiring for males o Access discrimination:  Used in hiring to offer attractive or less attractive positions based on gender  When does access discrimination operate: o 1. Employers have strong gender role stereotypes  Likely to discriminate; also highly religious may as well o 2. Likely when women applying for prestigious jobs  Men likely put into senior levels, women have to start as juniors o 3. Acts for both genders apply for gender inappropriate jobs:  If majority; they hire to fit majority  Males as execs; women as day care givers o 4. Likely to apply when applicants qualifications are ambiguous  If both not fully qualified; usually choose men  Less likely to discriminate if women shows clear cut traits  How does access discrimination operate: o 1. Employers have negative stereotypes abt women’s abilities o 2. Employer may assume that candidate must have sever stereotypical behaviour like he o 3. Employer may judge women harshly of inappropriate behaviours as opposed to men  Gender role spill over- beliefs abt gender roles and characteristics spread to work setting; women beautiful and gentle and caring... o Gender stereotypes encourage stereotypical hiring’s  What is affirmative action: o Designed to reduce access discrimination and other workplace biases o Refers to special efforts to make hiring fair; remove lenses/barriers to typing/ true equality o Media may paint false view of affirmative action claiming unqualified black women hired instead of qualified men to help society o Goal is design equality in job hiring and no barriers to anyone o Workplaces using this action; do have more equality on their grounds o Reverse discrimination- sympathy will cause wrong person to be hired belief   Discrimination in the workplace: o Treatment discrimination-discrimination after have obtained a job  Salary discrimination: o Women hold less salaries in most cultures o Women earn less at every educational level o Go to school for longer; still earn less than men do o Family responsibilities can explain it  Comparable worth: o Most see men and women as equivalent performers at most levels o Therefore they should get similar wages for similar jobs o Occupational segregation- they choose different occupations, and women’s jobs do pay less in real life  Work is devalued in a monetary sense and mental sense o As of now has limited access  Reactions to lower salaries: o Studies suggest they don’t mind lesser paying jobs o Men seem to have entitlement in jobs; right to rewards o Both genders know of lesser wages in women o Women may not acknowledge their true skills for the jobs of pay o Women may want to believe its fair  Discriminations in promotions: o Wal-Mart-glass ceiling- invisible barrier to move up o Women less likely to get promoted o Sticky floor-always stuck on bottom level jobs; can’t even see glass ceiling; just won’t bump into it o Glass escalator- men have it easy and encouraged and promoted more easily o Women face this discrimination with promotion, hiring patterns biased/discriminatory  Other kinds of treatment discrimination: o Women more likely to get negative evaluations. On workplace sites o Downgraded for performance, especially if acting against stereotype way o When boss preoccupied with other task, women face negativity; less so than men’s o Rate young female profs as less interested than men are  Men more likely to downgrade their profs; assume females had less ed. Than male profs do o Sexual harassment:  Deliberate subtle comments to women verbally or nonverbally unwanted by recipient  Some say sexual favours are needed to move up in job line  Some more subtle; they’re more objects  Indicate women as the second class  Women may be segregated from social events on/off worksites  Women of colour especially under discrimination  Women don’t have equality in informal social interactions  Discrimination against lesbian in workplace: o Heterosexist bias o Unjustified argument that they may promote gayness may be wrong o Ppl who are openly gay are higher in self esteem; sadly most jobs require hiding it  Less work production o Bias is less likely when familiar with ones work; i.e. do work then come out of closet smartest o Studies show lesbian earn more because more education, more likely non-traditional career  What to do about treatment discrimination: o 1. Women should be aware of stereotypes, likelihoods, and know rights o 2. Socially join clubs and support certain groups o 3.find real case worker and ask for advice in coping o Increasing diversity on workplace helps institution/ sales/ popularity o Some use:  1. Affirmative action policies  2.diversity training, rewards, and task force appointed to examine gender issues  3. Train managers to eval. Fairly and reduce stereotypes o Realistically it involves much social/culture change on a whole o Comparable worth must be standard policy Women’s experiences in selected occupations  Traditionally female occupations: o If teaching and child care more highly valued; may see better kids o Traditional female jobs: have low income, dependability, less choices, less use of ability o 70 percent of women are in women jobs; 30 percent men in women jobs o Are cultural differences defining thes’women type ‘jobs o Usually earn below poverty level wages; most must carry children at same time  Domestic work: o Many emigrate, report treated like modern day slaves in work  Garment work: o Sweatshop- violates human labour laws o Typically involve recent immigrants from Asia and Latin America o Can be replaced at will very easily o No possibility of pursuing higher Ed. With the monies o Often experience sexual harassment and abuse/death threats  Employment in traditionally male professions: o Characteristics of women in traditionally male profession  Often similar to men in that area; women have same cognitive test scores for ppl in same fields  Men no matter what have been seen as more self confident o Workplace climate for women in traditionally male professions  Job evaluation; sometimes by appearance not qualifications  May feel negatives from men when actually working  Discrimination has important effect on professional environment  Males and females found to be liked equally when ambiguous quality of work  Men treat them in patronizing way; language; many messages not equal to males  Employment in traditiona
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 3480

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit