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PSYC 3480 (233)
Chapter 7

Psychology for Women Chapters 7..docx

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PSYC 3480
Noreen Stuckless

Psychology for Women Chapter 7  Women and work  Background factors o Working women: o 1. Employed women - salary o 2. Nonemployed women- unpaid; volunteer o Large increase in women’s employment o Schools used to cling only to men; now women are docs n lawyers o Still face disadvantages  General info about employed women: o Educational upbringing effects job or no; high correlation o Correlation used to be if she was young and had children o Immigrants face barriers to employment o Other countries credits may not be accredited here o Many immigrants have little formal ed o Likely to find assembly line type jobs o Asians show 47% women had good ed., compared to 30% of others o Parental status and ethnicity not related to employment  Women and welfare: o Previous aid program was for women who couldn’t provide for children o New program came and limited welfare for 5 yrs o New program doesn’t promote education o Varies on states; some support ed some not o Lesser ed will result in cognitive problems most likely for their kids o Short-sighted new program affects women and their children  Discrimination in hiring patterns: o Test: same resume; diff name f/m- higher hiring for males o Access discrimination:  Used in hiring to offer attractive or less attractive positions based on gender  When does access discrimination operate: o 1. Employers have strong gender role stereotypes  Likely to discriminate; also highly religious may as well o 2. Likely when women applying for prestigious jobs  Men likely put into senior levels, women have to start as juniors o 3. Acts for both genders apply for gender inappropriate jobs:  If majority; they hire to fit majority  Males as execs; women as day care givers o 4. Likely to apply when applicants qualifications are ambiguous  If both not fully qualified; usually choose men  Less likely to discriminate if women shows clear cut traits  How does access discrimination operate: o 1. Employers have negative stereotypes abt women’s abilities o 2. Employer may assume that candidate must have sever stereotypical behaviour like he o 3. Employer may judge women harshly of inappropriate behaviours as opposed to men  Gender role spill over- beliefs abt gender roles and characteristics spread to work setting; women beautiful and gentle and caring... o Gender stereotypes encourage stereotypical hiring’s  What is affirmative action: o Designed to reduce access discrimination and other workplace biases o Refers to special efforts to make hiring fair; remove lenses/barriers to typing/ true equality o Media may paint false view of affirmative action claiming unqualified black women hired instead of qualified men to help society o Goal is design equality in job hiring and no barriers to anyone o Workplaces using this action; do have more equality on their grounds o Reverse discrimination- sympathy will cause wrong person to be hired belief   Discrimination in the workplace: o Treatment discrimination-discrimination after have obtained a job  Salary discrimination: o Women hold less salaries in most cultures o Women earn less at every educational level o Go to school for longer; still earn less than men do o Family responsibilities can explain it  Comparable worth: o Most see men and women as equivalent performers at most levels o Therefore they should get similar wages for similar jobs o Occupational segregation- they choose different occupations, and women’s jobs do pay less in real life  Work is devalued in a monetary sense and mental sense o As of now has limited access  Reactions to lower salaries: o Studies suggest they don’t mind lesser paying jobs o Men seem to have entitlement in jobs; right to rewards o Both genders know of lesser wages in women o Women may not acknowledge their true skills for the jobs of pay o Women may want to believe its fair  Discriminations in promotions: o Wal-Mart-glass ceiling- invisible barrier to move up o Women less likely to get promoted o Sticky floor-always stuck on bottom level jobs; can’t even see glass ceiling; just won’t bump into it o Glass escalator- men have it easy and encouraged and promoted more easily o Women face this discrimination with promotion, hiring patterns biased/discriminatory  Other kinds of treatment discrimination: o Women more likely to get negative evaluations. On workplace sites o Downgraded for performance, especially if acting against stereotype way o When boss preoccupied with other task, women face negativity; less so than men’s o Rate young female profs as less interested than men are  Men more likely to downgrade their profs; assume females had less ed. Than male profs do o Sexual harassment:  Deliberate subtle comments to women verbally or nonverbally unwanted by recipient  Some say sexual favours are needed to move up in job line  Some more subtle; they’re more objects  Indicate women as the second class  Women may be segregated from social events on/off worksites  Women of colour especially under discrimination  Women don’t have equality in informal social interactions  Discrimination against lesbian in workplace: o Heterosexist bias o Unjustified argument that they may promote gayness may be wrong o Ppl who are openly gay are higher in self esteem; sadly most jobs require hiding it  Less work production o Bias is less likely when familiar with ones work; i.e. do work then come out of closet smartest o Studies show lesbian earn more because more education, more likely non-traditional career  What to do about treatment discrimination: o 1. Women should be aware of stereotypes, likelihoods, and know rights o 2. Socially join clubs and support certain groups o 3.find real case worker and ask for advice in coping o Increasing diversity on workplace helps institution/ sales/ popularity o Some use:  1. Affirmative action policies  2.diversity training, rewards, and task force appointed to examine gender issues  3. Train managers to eval. Fairly and reduce stereotypes o Realistically it involves much social/culture change on a whole o Comparable worth must be standard policy Women’s experiences in selected occupations  Traditionally female occupations: o If teaching and child care more highly valued; may see better kids o Traditional female jobs: have low income, dependability, less choices, less use of ability o 70 percent of women are in women jobs; 30 percent men in women jobs o Are cultural differences defining thes’women type ‘jobs o Usually earn below poverty level wages; most must carry children at same time  Domestic work: o Many emigrate, report treated like modern day slaves in work  Garment work: o Sweatshop- violates human labour laws o Typically involve recent immigrants from Asia and Latin America o Can be replaced at will very easily o No possibility of pursuing higher Ed. With the monies o Often experience sexual harassment and abuse/death threats  Employment in traditionally male professions: o Characteristics of women in traditionally male profession  Often similar to men in that area; women have same cognitive test scores for ppl in same fields  Men no matter what have been seen as more self confident o Workplace climate for women in traditionally male professions  Job evaluation; sometimes by appearance not qualifications  May feel negatives from men when actually working  Discrimination has important effect on professional environment  Males and females found to be liked equally when ambiguous quality of work  Men treat them in patronizing way; language; many messages not equal to males  Employment in traditiona
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