PSYC 3480 Chapter Notes - Chapter 7: Glass Ceiling, Hiring And Mop Fairs, Occupational Segregation

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24 Apr 2012
Psychology for Women Chapter 7
Women and work
Background factors
o Working women:
o 1. Employed women - salary
o 2. Nonemployed women- unpaid; volunteer
o Large increase in women’s employment
o Schools used to cling only to men; now women are docs n lawyers
o Still face disadvantages
General info about employed women:
o Educational upbringing effects job or no; high correlation
o Correlation used to be if she was young and had children
o Immigrants face barriers to employment
o Other countries credits may not be accredited here
o Many immigrants have little formal ed
o Likely to find assembly line type jobs
o Asians show 47% women had good ed., compared to 30% of others
o Parental status and ethnicity not related to employment
Women and welfare:
o Previous aid program was for women who couldn’t provide for children
o New program came and limited welfare for 5 yrs
o New program doesn’t promote education
o Varies on states; some support ed some not
o Lesser ed will result in cognitive problems most likely for their kids
o Short-sighted new program affects women and their children
Discrimination in hiring patterns:
o Test: same resume; diff name f/m- higher hiring for males
o Access discrimination:
Used in hiring to offer attractive or less attractive positions based on gender
When does access discrimination operate:
o 1. Employers have strong gender role stereotypes
Likely to discriminate; also highly religious may as well
o 2. Likely when women applying for prestigious jobs
Men likely put into senior levels, women have to start as juniors
o 3. Acts for both genders apply for gender inappropriate jobs:
If majority; they hire to fit majority
Males as execs; women as day care givers
o 4. Likely to apply when applicants qualifications are ambiguous
If both not fully qualified; usually choose men
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Less likely to discriminate if women shows clear cut traits
How does access discrimination operate:
o 1. Employers have negative stereotypes abt women’s abilities
o 2. Employer may assume that candidate must have sever stereotypical behaviour like he
o 3. Employer may judge women harshly of inappropriate behaviours as opposed to men
Gender role spill over- beliefs abt gender roles and characteristics spread to
work setting; women beautiful and gentle and caring...
o Gender stereotypes encourage stereotypical hiring’s
What is affirmative action:
o Designed to reduce access discrimination and other workplace biases
o Refers to special efforts to make hiring fair; remove lenses/barriers to typing/ true
o Media may paint false view of affirmative action claiming unqualified black women
hired instead of qualified men to help society
o Goal is design equality in job hiring and no barriers to anyone
o Workplaces using this action; do have more equality on their grounds
o Reverse discrimination- sympathy will cause wrong person to be hired belief
Discrimination in the workplace:
o Treatment discrimination-discrimination after have obtained a job
Salary discrimination:
o Women hold less salaries in most cultures
o Women earn less at every educational level
o Go to school for longer; still earn less than men do
o Family responsibilities can explain it
Comparable worth:
o Most see men and women as equivalent performers at most levels
o Therefore they should get similar wages for similar jobs
o Occupational segregation- they choose different occupations, and women’s jobs do pay
less in real life
Work is devalued in a monetary sense and mental sense
o As of now has limited access
Reactions to lower salaries:
o Studies suggest they don’t mind lesser paying jobs
o Men seem to have entitlement in jobs; right to rewards
o Both genders know of lesser wages in women
o Women may not acknowledge their true skills for the jobs of pay
o Women may want to believe its fair
Discriminations in promotions:
o Wal-Mart-glass ceiling- invisible barrier to move up
o Women less likely to get promoted
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o Sticky floor-always stuck on bottom level jobs; can’t even see glass ceiling; just won’t
bump into it
o Glass escalator- men have it easy and encouraged and promoted more easily
o Women face this discrimination with promotion, hiring patterns biased/discriminatory
Other kinds of treatment discrimination:
o Women more likely to get negative evaluations. On workplace sites
o Downgraded for performance, especially if acting against stereotype way
o When boss preoccupied with other task, women face negativity; less so than men’s
o Rate young female profs as less interested than men are
Men more likely to downgrade their profs; assume females had less ed. Than
male profs do
o Sexual harassment:
Deliberate subtle comments to women verbally or nonverbally unwanted by
Some say sexual favours are needed to move up in job line
Some more subtle; they’re more objects
Indicate women as the second class
Women may be segregated from social events on/off worksites
Women of colour especially under discrimination
Women don’t have equality in informal social interactions
Discrimination against lesbian in workplace:
o Heterosexist bias
o Unjustified argument that they may promote gayness may be wrong
o Ppl who are openly gay are higher in self esteem; sadly most jobs require hiding it
Less work production
o Bias is less likely when familiar with ones work; i.e. do work then come out of closet
o Studies show lesbian earn more because more education, more likely non-traditional
What to do about treatment discrimination:
o 1. Women should be aware of stereotypes, likelihoods, and know rights
o 2. Socially join clubs and support certain groups
o 3.find real case worker and ask for advice in coping
o Increasing diversity on workplace helps institution/ sales/ popularity
o Some use:
1. Affirmative action policies
2.diversity training, rewards, and task force appointed to examine
gender issues
3. Train managers to eval. Fairly and reduce stereotypes
o Realistically it involves much social/culture change on a whole
o Comparable worth must be standard policy
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