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PSYC 3480 (233)
Chapter 10

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PSYC 3480
Noreen Stuckless

Psychology for Women Chapyter 10  Pregnancy  Biology of pregnancy o Egga nd sperm unite down the fallopian tube o Egg much more active in fertilization o Floats in uterus, implants self in skin of uterus o If it does not implant; becomes mentral flow o If in ideal enviornemnt in uterus; baby o Right after fertilization; placenta made; oxygen and nutrients to flow to embryo o Estrogen and progesterone are higher than before at end of pregnancy o First sign is missing a menstral cycle; tests; prenatal care o Developed countries 65% receive prenatal visit 8% in underdeveloped  Physical reactions during preganancy: o Affects almost all her organs; relatively minor o Report fatigue, urinations, breast tenderness, nausea, some want sex, some don’t  Emotional reactions: o May have wide variety o Positive:  Excitement, anticipation, wonder and awe, approval, social support given\  Transition, purpose, accomplishment, anticipations, o Negatives:  Fear, anxiety, pain, continually changing emotions,  Most adapt well; stress wont bug the fetus  Self image deteriorates; fat ugly,  Most respond well to women preggers  Difficult to stop addiction of complicating preganacies; native American highest  Pregenant singles rejected and working expeirnce that stress  Miscarriage-termination of preganacy unintended; greif results  Attitudes toward pregnant women: o Hostile sexism- blatant sexism—shown to pregnant ppl applying for jobs o Benevolent-subtle sexism—more to pregnant ; she needs extra help, patronizing o Some place maternity clothes at back; some near larger clothes  Employement during pregnancy o Usually stopped; some worked until labour o Contnue jobs shortly until date of birth o If job will cause physical hurt; they ususaly take off  Childbirth: o NA 2 children average; Canada 1.6 o Psychologists ignore this event though o Biology of childbirth:  Uterus contacts strongly, labour into 3 stages; st  1 stage-Contractionsf uterus, dilation of cervix(few hours to day),  2 stage- few mins to hours- contractions move them down vagina, pushing positive time, stressful and stretch, progesterone drops, baby is born rd  3 stage- anticlimax- placenta seperates, other tissue, estrogen and progesterone drop,  Women needed less medication if they had women accompanying them  Doula-women coach delivery girl  29% by Cesearean section; needed if otherwise would be risky; convenient  Preterm birth-less than 37 weeks ; normal is 40; complications likely  Women overly thin and uneducated most likely  Blacks 2x as likely than whites; health perhaps o Emotional reactions to childbirth:  Vary vastly o Alternative models of childbirth:\  Prepared childbirth-  1. Education in reducing fears and mths  2. Relaxation techniques and exercises to get muscles well  3. Breathing techniques, less pain  4. Social support and trainers  Does not elimante pain; reduces; prepares; more positive; less medications  High tech may sanitize every part of woman while reducing deaths  Family centered approach-  contrast to high tech- womens sense of individuality, psychological needs  Vast majority are normal  Focuses on mother not technology; psychpolgy very important  Changes to promote family centered approach  1. Physican shouldn’t indue labour artificially  2. Women should habe special birth rooms; pleasent  3. Coach and fgamily should be present  4. Should choose how to sit and move around  5. Birth practices showing no ads should be optional; enemas and shaving  6. Anesthetics should not be used unless neccesry or desired  7. Must be empoathetic to encourage thrir sense of empoweremt during childbirth  Motherhood: o Suggest some stereotypes that are well established although contradictory o Stereotypes about motherhood:  Motherhood inspires a rich variety of pleasent emotions as warmth, strength, nurturance, devotion, self sacrifice,  Stereotype-pregannt person is expected to be happy and upbeat; acheivemtn  Will assume they be perfectly competent when give birth; natural given skills will take over  Will enjoy being completly giving to child only; no self needs  Many feel guilty when they cant live upn to such stereotypes  Mother blamed in medias ambivalently o Reality of motherhood:  Our society values money and power; rather than motherhood  Don’t get proper appreciation  Negative factors:  Child care physically take toll, sleep deprived,  Many unmarried and do all alone; income ot raise an issue  Fathers help less, less pleasant tasks  After birth discharges; pains in region  Feelings of incompetence,  Babies cry and aren’t what they expected; 2 months maybe  Little contacts with other, social isol.  Romantic partner neglected, guilttrips  Don’t match the ‘’perfect mother’’  Infant mortality rate- 10% in some African countries  Positive factors of motherhood:  May not predominat in early motherhood; own strength  We too often focus on negatives  Fun and interesting infants, develop part of mothers personality  Helped identify their nurturing selves  Many father can care too; marital satisfaction increases after boirth  Positive side more abstract than details and symptoms in negatives  Children create ways to communicate  Intimate relationships grow with infants o Motherhood and women of colour:  Smaller differences in childbirth family size than expected  Invisible research of women of colour  Extended families in black families stabilize the families especially in poo
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