PSYC 3480 Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Preterm Birth, Prenatal Care, Preggers

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24 Apr 2012
Psychology for Women Chapyter 10
Biology of pregnancy
o Egga nd sperm unite down the fallopian tube
o Egg much more active in fertilization
o Floats in uterus, implants self in skin of uterus
o If it does not implant; becomes mentral flow
o If in ideal enviornemnt in uterus; baby
o Right after fertilization; placenta made; oxygen and nutrients to flow to embryo
o Estrogen and progesterone are higher than before at end of pregnancy
o First sign is missing a menstral cycle; tests; prenatal care
o Developed countries 65% receive prenatal visit 8% in underdeveloped
Physical reactions during preganancy:
o Affects almost all her organs; relatively minor
o Report fatigue, urinations, breast tenderness, nausea, some want sex, some don’t
Emotional reactions:
o May have wide variety
o Positive:
Excitement, anticipation, wonder and awe, approval, social support given\
Transition, purpose, accomplishment, anticipations,
o Negatives:
Fear, anxiety, pain, continually changing emotions,
Most adapt well; stress wont bug the fetus
Self image deteriorates; fat ugly,
Most respond well to women preggers
Difficult to stop addiction of complicating preganacies; native American highest
Pregenant singles rejected and working expeirnce that stress
Miscarriage-termination of preganacy unintended; greif results
Attitudes toward pregnant women:
o Hostile sexism- blatant sexismshown to pregnant ppl applying for jobs
o Benevolent-subtle sexismmore to pregnant ; she needs extra help, patronizing
o Some place maternity clothes at back; some near larger clothes
Employement during pregnancy
o Usually stopped; some worked until labour
o Contnue jobs shortly until date of birth
o If job will cause physical hurt; they ususaly take off
o NA 2 children average; Canada 1.6
o Psychologists ignore this event though
o Biology of childbirth:
Uterus contacts strongly, labour into 3 stages;
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1st stage-Contractionsf uterus, dilation of cervix(few hours to day),
2nd stage- few mins to hours- contractions move them down vagina, pushing
positive time, stressful and stretch, progesterone drops, baby is born
3rd stage- anticlimax- placenta seperates, other tissue, estrogen and
progesterone drop,
Women needed less medication if they had women accompanying them
Doula-women coach delivery girl
29% by Cesearean section; needed if otherwise would be risky; convenient
Preterm birth-less than 37 weeks ; normal is 40; complications likely
Women overly thin and uneducated most likely
Blacks 2x as likely than whites; health perhaps
o Emotional reactions to childbirth:
Vary vastly
o Alternative models of childbirth:\
Prepared childbirth-
1. Education in reducing fears and mths
2. Relaxation techniques and exercises to get muscles well
3. Breathing techniques, less pain
4. Social support and trainers
Does not elimante pain; reduces; prepares; more positive; less medications
High tech may sanitize every part of woman while reducing deaths
Family centered approach-
contrast to high tech- womens sense of individuality, psychological
Vast majority are normal
Focuses on mother not technology; psychpolgy very important
Changes to promote family centered approach
1. Physican shouldn’t indue labour artificially
2. Women should habe special birth rooms; pleasent
3. Coach and fgamily should be present
4. Should choose how to sit and move around
5. Birth practices showing no ads should be optional; enemas and
6. Anesthetics should not be used unless neccesry or desired
7. Must be empoathetic to encourage thrir sense of empoweremt
during childbirth
o Suggest some stereotypes that are well established although contradictory
o Stereotypes about motherhood:
Motherhood inspires a rich variety of pleasent emotions as warmth, strength,
nurturance, devotion, self sacrifice,
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