PSYC 3480 Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Affordable Housing, Ovarian Cancer, Concurrent Versions System

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24 Apr 2012
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Psychology of Women Chapter 11
Women and physical health
Health psych
o Interdisciplinary area in psych looking at causes for illness, treatments, ,
prevention, improvements
Why study health n women
o 1. gender makes a diff in the kinds of illness that ppl experience
Obvious diff. Risk ovarian vs. prostate cancers
And more subtle- more fats to women than liquid in men; alcohol
metabolism
o 2. Gender makes diff in way disease diagnosed n treated
Likelihoods
Diff symptoms in same disease
Topic for women sometimes become invisible-osteoporosis
o 3. Illness is an important part of woman’s experience
Chronic illnesses, elder women,
Health care and health status of women
Biases vs. women
o Biased usually vs. women
o Physicians and patients mistreated
o Discrimination on decrease due to more med school girls
o Biases:
Cautions:
1. Not every doc is biased vs. women
2. Some female docs are not feminists
3. Some male docs are feminists
o 1.women have been neglected in medical research
Omit reproduction sometimes
4x likely to be pictured men
Assume identicalness
Studies include no or few women
I.e. aspirin different to women
1990s changed to conduct for all; more visible
o 2. Gender stereotypes are common in medicine
Complaints not as serious in women presumed; too emotional instead
Advertisements to men
Keep women from seeking proper attn
o 3. Medical care provided to women is often irresponsible or inadequate
Sometimes too much care
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Surgery performed too often
Medical profession emphasizes women reproductive systems
Less likely than men to receive diagnostic testing or surgical treatment for
same artery conditions
o 4. Physician- patient communication patterns often make women feel powerless
Patients interrupted
Discourages asking Q’s
Some don’t see any gender diff. In receiving conversation with docs
Gender comparisons in life expectancy
o Mortality-death rate in all ethnic groups 79; small but consistent
o Women live longer because biological, social, environment
o X chromosome may protect from some health problems
o Suicide, homicide, war, motors more likely to kill men
o Men eat more salty/fatty foods
o More works conditions
o Aids for men worse
o Women visit, more attuned, sensitive to probs, male more tough no minor
symptoms
o Women consult earlier
Gender comparisons in overall health
o Morbidity worse for women
Poor health or illness
Women more obese, anxious, anaemia, respiratory illness,
More likely lifelong illness, headaches, fatigue,
Women more likely to have fatal diseases associated with old age
Morbidity assessed by self report
Women’s are primary victims of rape
22 mill abused in lifetime
Elder women more likely to be abused
Social class influences us women’s health
o Measured by occupation, education, income,
o Correlated with morbidity and mortality
o Quality of health care
o Should focus on prevention rather than care
o Some women do not have care in US
o Private insurance best health care benefits
o Women of colour likely to receive second class insurance care
o Low income housing usually has less hospitals and good healthy activities
o Psychological negative thinking also gives effect
o Men+ women feel effects of direct and indirect effects of social class
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Health issues for women in developing countries
o More severe
o Won’t even meet docs
o Females especially likely to suffer
o Boys more likely than girls in India to get treatment
o Women have inadequate nutrition
o Dying during childbirth
o Genital mutilation/cutting:
Removing their genitals and clitoris
Blood and urine to exits only
Conflict of culture and health
Usually 4 to puberty
Unsterilized or roks used
Makes genitals culturally cleaner
Reduces polygamy
CVS breast cancer specific health problems
o Cvs
most common death in women
heart attacks, strokes,
more deadly than all forms combined cancers
myth is that men disease is cvs only]
men just more likely to experience it early
at 75 same risk to men
black more likely to die than whites from it
men report chest pain; women pain and breathlessness; fail to diagnose
men more likely to get bypass surgery even with same medical profile
studies done in men more often
low dose aspirin had no effect on heart attacks in women built it did
significantly reduce women’s risk of strokes
o breast cancer
many don’t do association of heart disease with women
Why focus??More than others too?>
breasts are an essential part of the woman therefore care emphasis
80- 12% chance of developing it in lifetime
Systematic breast examination is important; early detection; over age 20
should check once a month; week after menstruating
Mammograms- x-ray of breast flattened, over 50; every year or two; too
small to detect by self exams
Under 50, speculate whether mammos would help
Coloured women bad at getting mammos 50%
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