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PSYC 3480 (233)
Chapter 13

Psychology of women Chapter 13.docx

8 Pages

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PSYC 3480
Noreen Stuckless

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1 Psychology of women Chapter 13 Violence against women  Intro o Female farm workers 10x likely to be harassed o Harassers are usually ppl with power at work or academia o Men’s entitlement of social group o Women seldom report; silence and invisibility  Sexual harassment o Unwanted gender related behaviour such as coercion offensive attn, hostile and verbal and physical behaviours focusing on gender o Most at school or work setting o Women between 2 and 7x likely to report than men o 1.Quid pro quid harassment- sexual favours from lower power to gain something, job, grade o 2. Hostile environment- atmosphere intimidation, unpleasantness, can’t work effectively o Lesbians can also be harassed; main focus on hetero though  Importance: o 1. Men have more power than women o 2. Coercive incentives for sex with harmful consequences of saying no o 3. Dehumanizes women and sexist fashion; lose intelligence to sexuality perceived o 4. Silent victims o 5. If no punishment reinforces, and makes acceptable  How often? o Often unclear o Unreported o College- 20-40% have been harassed o Women in traditionally male get most harassment o 50-70% in military; during wartime common  Women’s reactions o Negative job evals, demotions, firing o Most get anxiety, doubt fear, embarrasses, helpless, depressed o Ashamed as though responsible o Headaches, eating disorder, substances, sleep abuse  Public attitude o Men are more accepting of sexual harassment than women thru world  What to do o Individual action: 2  1. Campus policies, complaint officials  2. Discuss with someone u trust  3. Persistence calls to talk to the harasser, letter, can’t be illegal unless fully unwanted’  4. Keep records  5.reports to officials  6. Join feminist group  Adapted for workplace too  Some find treatment serious by legal and officials some less so  Feel unwanted and helpless o How men can help  Themselves  Speak up  Support harasses o Society response  Institution must be committed  I.e. military officials not so committed  University policies need to be made  Public opinion change needed  Flirtation may be regarded diff. By women  Unequal distribution of power to blame for harassment of kinds  Sexual assault and rape o Sexual assault broad, includes touching, and contact o Accompanied b y psych pressure and physical threats o Rape-more specific kind; sexual penetration without consent; force or harm; not able to consent o More often rape by acquaintance than a stranger  10-20% husbands; 17 countries worldwide consider it wrong o Common in countries where women subordinate o Wartime rape common o Weapon of war; attack on individual as well  How often is rape o Reluctance in self report o 5% of 20% report o Estimates 15-20% in lifetime raped  Acquaintance rape o Known to victim not related o 15% will experience rape; 35-40% will get sexual assault by acquaintance o Rape by bf less likely to describe /report as rape o Men are perceive other as seductive; aggressive men misinterpret behaviours 3 o Often blame women for sending wrong messages; rather than selves misinterpreting  Alcohol and drugs o Half rapes associated with them o Impairs decision making/interpretations o Women will see aggressive as safe; men will judge smile as hint o Date rape roofie- increases drunkenness sensation; devastating effect on women  Women’s reactions o Depends on knowledge, circumstance, memory etc... o All report terrified, confusion, threat, fear etc... o 25% are hurt o Some feel detached from own body during rape to cope o Short term adjustment:  Some expressive; anger fear anxiety pains  Others hide and subdue  Helpless and devalued, blame selves  Physical pains, discharges  Worry abt pregnancy; report hospitals unsympathetic  Report or not to police; wont handle case well; minimizes distress; blames victims; some report compassion and respect o Long term adjustment:  May last for yrs; pelvic pains, bleedings, infections, pregnancy, headaches  Depression , weight loss, eating disorder, substance abuse, sexual dysfunction common  Raped high likelihood of being in risky behaviours again  Attempt suicide more often  PTSD- anxiety, emotional numbing following rape/vivid intense memories  Many report decrease in psych symptoms within 3 mos. Of assault; some yrs  Some seek professionals to confront it  Group counselling effective  Make themselves stronger, determines, resilience  Fear of rape o Young and elder can be too o Many in safety of own homes o 40% feel unsafe home alone at night;15% of men o So many precautions for strangers, not acquaintance is astonishing o Reduces sense of freedom and power  Public’s attitude to rape o Attitudes after rape add a second hurt 4 o Closest ppl and society treat negatively, blame, when in need of compassion o Second victimization adds chances to ptsd o Ppl differ in attitudes to rape; men blame victims more than women(especially in acquaintance vs. stranger) o Hold women responsible for getting raped if wearing skimpy clothing o More likely to vote women responsible if let guy paid for full date  Myths about rape o Can intensify their pains o 1. Rapists are strangers  85% of rapes are known rapists  Less likely to report than if a stranger o 2. Only deviant men would  34% men liked forced sex; normal ppl too o 3. Women ask for rape; they could avoid  17% agree that women support rape  Advertisement don’t help  Women of colour likely to be blamed for rape o 4. Pornography has no effect  Can effect men’s brains  Men who viewed, higher aggressive sex  Child sexual abuse o Relatives, caretakers, neighbours o Definitions vary  Some specify physical/some not  20-30% females by age of 18  Ethnicity no effect changes o incest- biological abuse; including rape o effect of child abuse:  immediate and long term; fear anger; loss of trust  long term-ptsd, depression, anxiety, substance abuse, risky sex o recovered memory and false memory:  recovered perspective- something triggers past abuse  false- incorrect, construct based on never happening events  we can’t see truth; no witnesses usually;  General points:  1. Can provide accurate at times  2. Sometimes may forget; recover memory; especially if abuser was close in family  3.
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