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Chapter 5

Psych 3490 Adult Development and Aging Chapter 5.docx

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PSYC 3490
Nadiah Habib

Chapter 5: Person-Environment Interactions and Optimal Aging - Kurt Lewin conceptualized equation, B = f(P,E), this relationship defining person-environment interactions means that behaviour(B) is function of both the person (P) and the environment (E)  Competence and Environmental Press o Competence is the theoretical upper limit of a person’s capacity to function o Competence involves five domains: biological health, sensory-perceptual functioning, motor skills, cognitive skills, and ego strength (lifelong) o Environments can be classified on the basis of the varying demands they place on the person, called environmental press (can include any combination of physical, interpersonal, or social) o Adaptation level: represents points where press is in balance for particular levels of competence o Important to consider three environmental domains: structural resources (housing and neighbourhood), social support, and service support  The Congruence Model o Cvitkovich and Wister’s idea, the best way to consider how people and environments interact is to look for the best fit for a specific person in a particular environment o People with particular needs search for the environments that meet them best o Congruence between the person and the environment is especially important when personal or environmental options are limited  Stress and coping framework o Basic premise of Lazarus’s theory is that people evaluate situations to assess their potential threat value, situations that are harmful, beneficial, or irrelevant o When harmful, people establish range of coping responses, the process results in a coping response o The presences of social support systems affected the likelihood that particular situations would be defined as threatening  The loss continuum concept o Pastalan views aging as a progressive series of losses that reduce one’s social participation, this loss continuum includes children leaving, loss of social roles, loss of income, death of spouse or close friends and relatives, loss of sensory acuity, and loss of mobility caused by poorer health  Common theoretical themes and everyday competence o The four theories above agree that the focus must be on interaction between the person and environment (not one or the other), no one environment meets everyone’s needs rather a range of potential environments may be optimal o Everyday competence: a person’s potential ability to perform a wide range of activities considered essential for independent living involving person’s physical, psychological, social functioning which interact in complex ways to create the person’s day-to-day behaviour Living in long-term care facilities  Types of long-term care facilities o Private: lowest level, some supervision provided, but only minimal amount of personal or health care, for profit o Nursing homes: next level, may be for profit, moderate to high levels of personal care and receive some subsidies from provincial governments o Continuing/Chronic care: provided by long-term care hospitals or units within acute-care facilities, people in this care need high level of personal health care and accessibility of specials treatments or services o Assisted living facilities: provide a supportive living arrangement for people who need assistance with personal care (bathing, taking medicine) but who are not impaired physically or cognitively that they need 24 hour care o Adult foster care: or adult family homes are another alternative to nursing homes for adults who do not need 24 hour, usually small and house 5-6 clients who need assistance with daily needs because of disabilities or chronic disorders but in fairly good health  Who is most likely to live in long-term care (figure 5.2) o One important reason why seniors choose not to live in long term facilities is cost o Low income residents can receive a government subsidy that absolves them of any co- payment charge, but unable to select their preferred accommodation  Characteristics of long-term care facilities o Physical characteristics include factors such as size, staff-to-resident ratio, numbers and types of activities, and certification requirements o Congruence approach: kahana’s approach, personal well being is the product not just of the characteristics of the facility and of the person but also of the congruence between the person’s needs and the ability of the facility to meet them o Moos’s approach: believe that facilities can be evaliuation in physical, organizational, supportive, and social climate terms o Soci
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