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Chapter 11

PSYC 3490 Chapter 11 (Autosaved).docx

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York University
PSYC 3490
Nadiah Habib

Chapter 11: Relationships Relationship Types and Issues Friendships -predominantly based on feelings and are grounded in perceptions of long-term reciprocity and choice, they helps us develop self-esteem, self-awareness, and self-respect -Three broad themes underlie adult friendships:  Affective or emotional basis: this includes self-disclosure, expressions of intimacy, appreciation, affection, and support, based on trust, loyalty, and commitment  Shared or communal nature: Friends participate in or support activities of mutual interest  Sociability and compatibility: friends keep us entertained and are sources of amusement, fun, and recreation DEVELOPMENTAL ASPECTS OF FRIENDSHIPS -Age differences in friendship -Young adults tend to have more friends and acquaintances than any other age group -Friendships in old age are especially important for maintaining life satisfaction, even when faced with disability; a reason could be older adults’ concerns about becoming burdens to their families -global reciprocity: a process described as the balancing of indebtedness overtime and in a variety of ways -Cartensen’s life span theory of socioemotional selectivity, which argues that social contact is motivated by a variety of goals, including information seeking, self-concept, and emotional regulation; people become increasingly selective in whom they choose to have contact with -Rook proposes that older adults compensate for loss through three strategies: forming new ties, redefining the need for friends, or developing alternative non-social activities GENDER DIFFRENCES IN FRIENDSHIPS -Men tend to have fewer friendships than women -Men’s friendships tend to be based on shared activities, more competition, example: basketball game -Women's friendships are based on intimate emotional sharing -Cross-gender friendships tend to be very difficult to maintain Sibling Relationships -closest relationship, also include involvement with each other, frequency of contact, envy, and resentment -Five types of sibling relationships have been identified  Congenial: high levels of closeness and involvement, average levels of contact, and low levels of envy and resentment  Loyal: average levels of closeness, involvement, and contact, and low levels of envy and resentment  Intimate: high levels of closeness and involvement, and low levels of envy and resentment  Apathetic: low levels on all dimensions  Hostile: high levels of involvement and resentment, low levels on all other dimensions -loyal and congenial relations describe 2/3 of all older sibling pairs -ties between sisters are the strongest, most common, and most intimate Love Relationships -Sternberg has identified three components of love: passion (an intense physiological desire for someone), intimacy (the feeling that one can share all one’s thoughts and thoughts and actions with one another), and commitment (the willingness to stay with a person through good and bad times) -Ideally, good love relationships have all three components, although balance shifts as time passes -Combinations produce seven types of love -Assortative mating does the best job explaining the process of forming love relationships, which states that people find partners based on their similarity to each other (religion, physical traits, age, SES, etc.) -Selecting a mate works best when there are shared values, goals, and interests -Cross-cultural research demonstrates that mate preferences are subject to powerful cultural norms Violence in Relationships -Abusive relationships occur when one person becomes aggressive toward the partner  Levels of aggressive behaviour range from verbal aggression to physical aggression to murdering one’s partner  Battered woman syndrome: when a woman believes she can leave the abusive situation and may even go so gas as to kill her abuser -People remain in abusive relationships for many reasons, including low self-esteem and the belief that they cannot leave -The causes of aggression become more complex as the level of aggression increases -Common couple violence: occurs occasionally and can be instigated by either partner -Patriarchal terrorism: systematic violence by men against women -Gender differences: the triad of control, misuse power, and jealousy are more pertinent causes for men than for women (men want women to know “who is the boss”) -Culture issues: cultures that emphasize honour and portray women as passive supporters of men’s activity with sacrifice for family tend to tolerate abuse, there are the differences between different cultures ELDER ABUSE AND NEGLECT -Elder abuse is difficult to define and has seven categories (McPherson): physical, sexual, emotional or psychological, medical, financial or material, legal, abandonment -Most perpetrators are adult children, abuse and neglect (the failure to provide necessary care) of older adults is an increasing problem -More than 4% older Canadians experience abuse or neglect -Tindale argues that attachment problems early in the parent-child relationship and subsequent difficulties in providing reciprocal support within the family lay the foundation for abuse late in life Lifestyles and Love Relationships Singlehood -Most adults in their 20s are single, approximately 75% of men and 60% of women -People remain single for a variety of reasons -Gender differences, men tend to stay single longer -However, fewer men remain unmarried throughout adulthood; there are health and longevity consequences from single for men but not for women -mating gradient: the tendency for men to marry women younger than themselves who typically have fewer resources and less job experience -Women with higher levels of education are over represented among unmarried adults -Ethnic differences: 14% of senior men from First Nations never married, compared with less than 6% of other older Canadian men, for women percentages are more similar at around 6% for both groups Gay Male and Lesbian Couples -Less is known about the development of these relationships than about any other type -On many relationship dimensions gay male and lesbian couples are similar to married couples, including, finances and household chores, however, lesbian couples tend to be more egalitarian -Adam noted that monogamy was not valued at all by gay couples (especially males) Marriage -The median age at first marriage (26 for men, and 24 for women) is increasing and has done so over the last few decades
 FACTORS INFLUENCING MARITAL SUCCESS -Maturity of the two partners at time of marriage -Homogamy Marriage: the similarity of values and interests, feelings of equality -Exchange theory - each partner contributing something to the relationship that the other would be hard pressed to provide THE DEVELOPMENT COURSE OF MARITAL SATISFACTION -Childless couples tend to remain satisfied throughout their marriage -Couples with children show declines in marital satisfaction while the children are still living at home -Additionally, marriages in which both partners are mutually dependent on the other tend to remain happy -Karney and Bradbury proposed vulnerability-stress-adaptation model: sees marital quality as a dynamic process resulting from the couple ability to handle stressful events in the context of their particular vulnerabilities and resources WHAT ARE LONG TERM
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