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Chapter 12

PSYC 3490 Chapter 12.docx

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York University
PSYC 3490
Nadiah Habib

Chapter 12: Work, Leisure, & Retirement Occupational Choice and Development -what work means to adults The Meaning of Work -work also rewards with friendship, the chance to exercise power, and feeling useful -Although most people and the main purpose of work is money or to make a living, other reasons are highly variable, they include, prestige, recognition, and a sense of worth -Occupational priorities (what people want from their employment, reflect the culture and the times in which people live in, as well as the characteristics of the job and the quality of the workplace) have changed over time, younger workers’ expectations from their occupations are lower and their emphasis on personal growth is higher -Job strain: the balance between the psychological demands of a job and the amount of control a worker has in that job (and the relation with the decision to retire) -Information from National Population Health Survey suggests job strain is related to decision to retire -Job strain affected retirement decision for people in managerial, technical, or professional jobs but not so much those in service and blue-collar occupations The Changing Nature of Work -Global competition means workers in Canada competing for jobs with workers in same industries in China, Mexico, and India -Globalization has resulted in extensive changes in number and types of jobs available -Full-time work has been increasingly replaced by part-time work and manufacturing jobs have been lost -Layoffs occur mostly because of: competition, productivity, and relocation of operations, mergers, acquisitions, infusion of new technology or plant obsolescence -Changes mean a fundamental re-definition of nature of work -Traditional organizational careers consisted of meeting organizational needs -Now emphasis is on occupational flexibility and learning Occupational Choice -people of different ages may feel different degrees of pressure to make a certain occupation choice HOLLAND’S THEORY OF OCCUPATIONAL CHOICE -Holland’s theory is focused on the idea that people choose occupations that optimize the fit between their individual traits (such as personality, intelligence, skills, and abilities) and their occupational interests -categorizes occupations in two ways: by the interpersonal settings in which people must function and by their associated lifestyle - Six personality types that represent different combinations (*Table 12.1):  Realistic individuals enjoy physical labour and working with their hands, and they like to solve concrete problems (mechanic, truck driver, construction worker)  Investigative individuals are task-oriented and enjoy thinking about abstract relations (scientist, technical writer)  Artistic individuals enjoy express themselves through unstructured tasks (poet, actor, musician)  Social individuals skilled verbally and interpersonally, and they enjoy solving problems using these skills (teacher counsellor, social worker)  Enterprising individuals enjoy using their verbal skills in positions of power, status, and leadership (business executive, television producer, real estate agent)  Conventional individuals have verbal and quantitative skills that they like to apply structured, well-defined tasks assigned to them by others (bank teller, payroll clerk, traffic manager) -Holland’s theory predicts that people will choose the occupation that has the greatest similarity to their personality type, which also increases productivity at work -theories that personality traits are passed down generation to generation, hence influencing the next generation’s occupational choice Occupation Development -promotion is a measure of how well one is doing in one’s career SUPER’S THEORY -theory of occupational development based on self-concept and adaptation to an occupation role and developed five stages in adulthood:  Implementation (when people take a series of temporary jobs to learn firsthand work roles and to try out some possible career choices) establishment(selecting a specific occupation during young adulthood) maintenance(transition phase, beginning to reduce the amount of time they spend fulfilling work roles) deceleration(workers begin planning in earnest for their upcoming retirement) retirement (when people stop working full-time) -people are located along a continuum of vocational maturity through their working years; the more congruent their occupation behaviour are with what is expected of them at different ages, the more vocationally mature they are  The more congruent a person’s occupational behaviours are with what is expected of them at different ages, the more vocationally mature they are -the initial two phases of Super’s theory, crystallization (identity development as a source of career ideas) and specification (focusing on and training in specific lines of work), occur primarily during late adolescence -his view states that once people choose an occupation they stay in it for the rest of their lives, and doesn’t fit women’s work experiences OCCUPATIONAL EXPECTATIONS - People have expectations about what they want to become and when they hope to get there, expectations change as the result of:  Realizing that one’s interests have changed or the dream was not a good fit  But also due to age, race, or sexual discrimination, lack of opportunity, and obsolescence of skills -Reality Shock: the realization that one’s expectations about an occupation are different from the reality one experiences, and how things never see, to happen the way we expect -ways to overcome depends on individual’s need for control over his environment -Reality shock is common among young workers and happens most to young adults and people with little relevant experience prior to assuming a new job; the outcome of reality shock is often a revision of personal priorities in life THE ROLE OF MENTORS -A mentor is a co-worker who teaches a new employee the unwritten rules and fosters occupational development, an older more experienced person that makes a specific effort to do this (example, wearing the right clothes) -mentor also makes sure that his or her protégé is noticed and receives credit for their good work -Mentor-protégé relationships develop over time, through stages, like other relationships, being a mentor helps middle-aged workers achieve generativity -Two main functions: improving the protégé’s chances for advancement and social well-being -Kram suggests that a four-stage sequence occurs in mentor protégé relationship 1. Initiation: 6-12 month period, protégé selects mentor and begins to develop their relationship 2. Cultivation: 2-5 years, most active phase, mentor provides occupational assistance and serves as confidant 3. Separation: most difficult, protégé receives promotion, often to the level of the mentor 4. Re-definition: protégé and mentor re-establish their relationship but wth a new set of rules based more on friendship between peers Job Satisfaction -is the positive feeling that results from a self-appraisal of one’s work -increased satisfaction has been linked to several factors:  Job satisfactions tends to show low to moderate increases with age, older workers report higher job satisfaction than younger workers, this may be partly because of self-selection, unhappy workers may quit, “knowledge nomads” are capable of as much commitment to an organization during a brief tenure as those who stay longer  The relationship between worker age and job satisfaction is complex  Increases in job satisfaction may not result from age alone but rather from the degree to which there is a good fit between the worker and the job  As workers get older, they may make work less of a focus in their lives, perhaps because they have achieved occupational success  The type of job and the degree of family responsibilities at different career stages may influence the relationship between age and job satisfaction  Job satisfaction may be cyclic, periodic fluctuations -Alienation: feeling that what one is doing is meaningless, efforts are devalued, -Burnout: too much stress in one’s occupation and can lead to, loss of energy and motivation, loss of occupational idealism, feeling that one is being exploited Gender, Ethnicity, Bias, and Discrimination Gender Differences in Occupational Choice -Currently, more than 81% of women between ages of 25 and 54 worked outside of the home in 2005 (versus 91% of men, Statistics Canada, 2006) -Many women have difficulty finding occupations that match their level of skill, women in non- traditional occupations are viewed more poorly by both men and women -Women in traditional female occupations changed jobs less often, major structural barriers to women’s occupational selection remain TRADTIONAL AND NON-TRADTIONAL OCCUPATIONS • Research in this area has focused on three issues 1. Selection of non-traditional occupations 2. Characteristics of women in non-traditional occupations 3. Perceptions of non-traditional occupations Women and Occupational Development -Women who leave well-paid occupations do so for many reasons, including  Family obligations - for women working part-time, adequate child-care affects choice  Workplace issues - for women working full-time -Women who continue to work full-time have adequate child care and look for ways to further their occupational development -Most important workplace issues are gender-related (unsupportive or insensitive work environments, organizational politics, lack of occupational development opportunities) Ethnicity and Occupational Development -whether an organization is responsive to the needs of ethnic minorities makes a big difference for employees Bias and Discrimination -Sex discrimination: denying a job to someone solely on the basis of whether the person is a man or a woman, a major issue, in terms of getting jobs, occupational development, and also in pay  More recently we are se
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