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Canada (158,028)
York University (12,350)
Psychology (3,541)
PSYC 3490 (60)
Chapter 2

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York University
PSYC 3490
Lewis Code

Chapter 2 – Theory and Method in Studying Aging and Older Adulthood Metatheoretical Approach The Mechanistic Metamodel - Nurture and quantitative study (eg. Do older adults display more or less of a behaviour compared to younger adults?) - External environment as input and organisms behaviour as output therefore research for organisms reaction to external forces (passive organism) - Study the big picture (the whole) by breaking it down into smaller parts The Organismic Metamodel - Nature, - Organisms act upon the environment (active organism) - Development directed towards an end point or a goal - Looks at the whole not the parts - Qualitative, main focus structure/patterns of characteristics at different points in life, age doesn’t matter as younger and older adults would use different strategies to solve a problem The Contextual Metamodel - Nature and nurture, bidirectional b/w environment and organism - No end point/goal as environment and organism are constantly changing - Quantitative and qualitative , not broken into smaller parts - Not restricted to age only, look at education, prior experiences, lifestyle and culture The Life-Span Developmental Perspective - Ongoing and multi-layered, organism acts upon and changes the environment and vice versa - Behaviours is product of the organism and the environment - Applies to biological, cognitive and social development, multiple causes for development - Assessment over long periods of time (intraindividual change) - Losses and gains, more losses in older adulthood, both even in younger Developmental Research The Age Variable – organismic variable, young group and older group so able to compare/contrast Factors 1) chronological age – number of years since birth 2) cohort – group of people born during the same time (year, month or day) 3) time of measurement - when the data is collected (eg. Being married at beginning of study, divorcing, becoming a widow or remarrying near end of study) Cross-Sectional Design - Study of 2 or more age group (eg. A few older and younger adults conduct test, can see age- related differences) - Attrition, participant drop off is minimal as they are tested only once
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