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Chapter 12

Ch. 12 - Understanding p Values and Effect Size Indicators.pdf

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York University
PSYC 3525
Josee Rivest

Ch. 12 - Understanding p Values and Effect Size Indicators Monday, December 17, 2012 11:13 AM PSYC2520: Introduction to Experimental Psychology BeginningBehavioralResearch: A Conceptual Primer (7thed. 2012)Rosnow& Rosenthal Chapter12: Understandingp Valuesand EffectSize Indicators (pp.219-225) Why is it importantto focus not just on statistical significance? • Null hypothesis sigficance testing (NHST)- The use of statistics and probabilities to evaluate the null hypothesis • Null hypothesis- there is no difference in the dependent variable between any levels of the independent variable • Significance test = Size of effect x Size of study ○ Effect size is measured using correlations (r) What is thereasoningbehindnull hypothesissignificance testing? • Null hypothesis vs. alternative hypothesis What is thedistinctionbetween a Type I error and a Type II error? • Type I error implies that he decision maker mistakenly rejected the null hypothesis when it is, in fact, true and should not have been rejected ○ The risk (or probability) of making a Type I error is called:  Alpha (α)  Significance level  p value • Type II error implies that the decision maker mistakenly failed to reject the null hypothesis whet it is, in fact, false and should have been reject ○ The risk of making a Type II error is called beta (β) What are one-tailed and two-tailedp values? • The two-tailed p value is applicable when the alternative hypothesis did not specifically predict in which side (or tail) of the probability distribution the significance would be detected • The on
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