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PSYC 3600 (49)

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York University
PSYC 3600
Thanh Nguyen

Ch.10 Health Care System The American Healthcare System National Health Indicators • World Health Statistics state that the average life expectancy for those who live in the U.S is 79yrs old • Neonatal mortality rates per 1,000 follow a similar pattern • Life expectancy was at an all-time high in 2011 • African American have a lower life expectancy in the U.S • Health services are more accessible in urban areas • Still a concern about an unhealthy lifestyle (diet, exercise, drinking, risky behaviors) • Healthcare in the U.S is not evenly distributed; healthcare advantages go to upper and middle class White ethnic majority, those in urban centers, and those who have insurance. The Canadian Healthcare System - National Health Indicators - World Health Organization (WHO) - Indicators of Community Health o Life Expectancy o Neonatal Mortality/Survival th - Canada is ranked 4 in neonatal mortality Characteristics of the Canadian Health Care System (Health Canada) • Canada’s national health insurance program is often referred to as Medicare • Universal coverage for medically necessary health care services provided on the basis of need • Publicly funded health care is financed with general revenue raised through federal, provincial and territorial taxation. • Guided by the Canada Health Act (CHA, 1984) • • to “protect, promote and restore the physical and mental well-being of residents • of Canada and to facilitate reasonable access to health services without financial or other barriers” • To ensure that all eligible resident of Canada have access to insured health services on a prepaid basis. Primary Health Care Services • First point of contact with the health care system - Prevention and treatment of common diseases and injuries - Basic emergency services - Referrals to and coordination with other level of care ( hospital and special care) - Primary mental health care Secondary Services • A patient may be referred for specialized care at a hospital, at a long-term care facility or in the community • Most home and continuing care services are not covered by the Canada Health Act • The federal department of Veterans Affairs Canada provides home care services to certain veterans • The federal government provides home care services to First Nation and to Inuit Supplementary Services • The provinces and territories provide coverage to certain people (e.g., senior, children, and low-income residents) for health services that are not generally covered under the publicly funded health care system • These supplementary health benefits often include prescription drugs outside hospitals, dental care, vision care, medical equipment and appliances Observations on the System • U S spends more money than any other country in the world, but to continue to struggle with expenses of health care • Continue to have problems for people who are not covered by private insurance such as Medicare and Medicaid Cost and Access • There is still a demand to minimize the overall costs associated with healthcare , especially the healthcare that is subsidized by taxpayers or paid out of pocket by those lacking coverage • Lack of health insurance places none-too-subtle pressure on potential patient to be frugal with health usage • Patient lack of power financially and institutionally will lead to a sense of disempowerment about being in control of their health care. • Inequities in healthcare access and health outcomes in general are known as health disparities • Disparities are evident when there is statistical overrepresentation of people in a category when compared to the population in general Trends/ Changes in Health Care • Alternative care delivery in clinics, primary health care centers, community health centers and home care; • Treatment using medical equipment and drugs;
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