Textbook Notes (363,383)
Canada (158,358)
York University (12,359)
Psychology (3,543)
PSYC 3630 (19)
Erin Ross (5)
Chapter 4

chapter 4

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York University
PSYC 3630
Erin Ross

CHAPTER 4 OUR GENDERED IDENTITIES GENDERED IDENTITES o sex is used in reference to male or female anatomy and physiology o gender or gender role to describe societal attitudes and behaviors expected of and associated with the two sexesgender identity refers to the degree to which an individual sees herselfhimself as feminine or masculineGender Expectations and Cultural Messages o Our actions thoughts and feelings come not from instinct but from social messages and often those messages tell us the wrong story about each other leading in the case of this discussion to difficulties trying to sort out the roles we are expected to play and the roles we would like to play as men and women o traditional sexism is the belief that womens roles should be continued to the family and that women are not as fit as men for certain tasks or for leadership positions o modern sexism more subtle and it has replaced traditional sexismit takes the form of agreement with statements such as the following Discrimination in the labor force is no longer a problem and in order not to appear sexist many men are inclined to overcompensate womenmodern sexism denies that gender discrimination persist and includes the belief that women are asking for too muchthough work family and civic roles have changed and modernized there is still a sense on the part of the average person that men and women are different in personality and aptitudes o the mass news and entertainment media presents images and stories that suggests full equality for women is real that now women can be or do anything they wantbut simultaneously suggest that most women prefer domesticity over the workplace this reinforces the notion that women and men together no longer need to pursue greater gender equality at work and at home o stereotypically masculine people are often thought to have agentic or instrumental character traits confidence assertiveness and ambition that enable them to accomplish difficult tasks or goals o a relative absence of agency characterizes our expectations of women who are thought to embody communal or expressive character traits warmth sensitivity the ability to express tender feelings and placing concern about others welfare above selfinterestMasculinities o scholars have begun to analyze masculinities in the plural rather than the singulara recent and subtle change meant to promote our appreciation for the differences among men o an important cultural expectation is that a man should be occupationally or financially successful or at least should be working to support his familywhich should include children sired in marriage o a man is also expected to be confident and selfreliant even aggressivean alternative cultural message emphasizes adventure sometimes coupled with violence andor need to outwit humiliate and defeat other men in barroom brawls contact sports and war o during the 1980s a new cultural message emergedthe liberated male or new man is emotionally sensitive and expressive valuing tenderness and equal relationships with women
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