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Chapter 8 - breedlove

PSYC 3690 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8 - breedlove: Endorphins, White Matter, Dynorphin

Course Code
PSYC 3690
Heather Jordan
8 - breedlove

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-sensory receptor organ : An organ (such as the eye or ear)
specialized to receive particular stimuli.
-stimulus : A physical eventhat triggers a sensory response.
-receptor cell : A specialized cell that responds to a
particular energy or substancein the internal or external
environment, and converts this energy into a change in the
electrical potential across its membrane.
-adequate stimulus : The type of stimulus for which a given
sensory organ is particularly adapted.
-specific nerve energies : The doctrine that the receptors and
neural channels for the different senses are independent and
operate in their own special ways, and can produce only one
particular sensation each.
-labeled lines : The concept that each nerve input to the brain
reports only a particular type of information
-sensory transduction : The process in which a receptor cell
converts the energy in a stimulus into a change in the
electrical potential across its membrane.
-generator potential : A local change in the resting potential
of a receptor cell that mediates between the impact of stimuli
and the initiation of nerve impulses.
-Pacinian corpuscle : A skin receptor cell type that detects
-threshold : The stimulus intensity that is just adequate to
trigger a nerve impulse in the axon
-coding : The rules by which action potentials in a sensory
system reflect a physics stimulus.
-range fractionation : A hypothesis of stimulus intensity
perception stating that a wide range of intensity values can be
encoded by a group of cells, each of which is a specialist for
a particular range of stimulus intensity.
-somatosensory : Body sensation, referring to touch and Pain
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-Adaptation : the progressive loss of receptor sensitivity as
stimulation is maintained - progressive shift in neuronal
activity away from the accurate portrayal of maintained stimuli
-Tonic receptor : A receptor in which the adaptation (nerve
impulse discharge as the stimulation is maintained ) is done
slowly or not at all
-phasic receptor : A receptor in which adoption is done rapidly
-Sensory pathway : the chain of neural connections from the
sensory receptor cells to the cortex
-thalamus : The brain region at the top of the brain stem that
trades information wit the cortex. for most senses, the
information reaches the Thalamus (already in divided sections )
before being traded with the cortex.
- in most sensory systems, accessory structure can reduce the
level of input (ex: blinking eyes, contracting middle-ear
-Central modulation of sensory information : the process in
which the higher brain centres (thalamus , cortex) suppress
some source of the sensory information and amplify others
-Receptive field : stimulus region and feature that causes the
maximal response of a cell in a sensory system.
- Somatosensory receptive fields have a inhibitory surround and
excitatory centre or vice versa. This feature helps us detect
edges and discontinues objects. (also differ in shape,size and
quality of information that activate them
-Primary Sensory Cortex : for a given sensory modularity, the
region of cortex that receives the most of the information
about that modality (From the thalamus or directly from
secondary sensory sources in case of olfaction- sense of
smell )
-Secondary (or non primary )Sensory cortex : the part of brain
that receives direct projection from the primary sensory
cortex. these fields also have input form thalamus. information
loop between the primary and secondary sensory cortex
- One cortical region that plays a special role in attention is
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