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PSYC 4010 (6)
Chapter 4

Child Development - Chapter 4 Notes.docx

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York University
PSYC 4010
Tifrah Warner

Child Development: Thinking about Theories Chapter 4 – pg 60-79 – The Child as a Philosopher  Popper – mind-body dualism o 3 worlds – physical, mental, world of intelligible o World 1 – physical reality; 5 senses o World 2 – inner world of thoughts, feelings and emotions; introspection o World 3 – logic and mathematics  George Kelly – personal construct theory o Man might be seen as an incipient scientist o Each individual man formulates in his own way constructs through which he views the world of events  Cognitive psychology – mental representations, symbols and computations Jean Piaget’s cognitive development theory  3 main phases o Refined his clinical interview technique, young children’s “animistic” beliefs, egocentrism of young children and inability to take on another’s perspective o Children’s mental growth, object permanence o Children’s understanding of concepts such as number, quantity and speed  Stage-independent and stage dependent  Stage-independent – 4 factors o Maturation – brain development – rapid before birth; first 2 years o Experience – direct physical experience (5 senses) and mathematical experience (logical and mathematical structure; child’s acting) o Social transmission – least developed; dialectic between the child and the physical world, but included social interaction as a motivator of development o Equilibration – achieving equilibrium  Stage theory of development o A period of formation and progressive organization of mental operations o The progressive hierarchical development of one stage upon another o Relative similarity on the attainment of each stage  Stage-dependent – 4 major stages o Sensori-motor period (0-2 yrs): 5 senses, simple reflexes o Pre-operational period (3-7yrs): language, modelling and memory; the child’s internal, cognitive representation of the external world is gradually developing and differentiating; perception is greater than concepts, egocentrism o Concrete operations period (7-11yrs): children’s thinking becomes more flexible o Formal operational period (11+yrs): final period of cognitive development; reason abstractly without relying on concrete situations or events  Constructivist, progressive and directional Critique of Piaget’s Theory  Clinical interviews – too subjective and value-laden  Language, repetition  Sequence of stages  Piaget treats other people as objects  Complexity and messiness of cognitive development in details  3 tenets o Children develop from an impoverished beginning state. Research suggests that, in fact, the young infant is highly competent o There are global discontinuities in cognition across stages. In fact, there is evidence of early precursors to abilities
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