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PSYC 4010 (6)
Chapter 6

Child Development - Chapter 6 - Notes.docx

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PSYC 4010
Tifrah Warner

PSYC 4010 - Developmental Psychology Child Development Thinking about Theories Chapter 6 - Notes Mechanism: the whole is equal to the sum of its parts Introduction  Functionalism - James  Pavlov, Skinner, Watson and Bandura A mechanistic outlook  Mind-body dualism  Plato o Ideas = thoughts The context in which behaviourism arose  Behaviourism developed in the prominence of Newtonian science  Newtonian science o Introspection, revelation, reason and ordinary experience  Materialism o Scientific principles could be applied to the study of living organism Ivan Pavlov and the conditional reflex  Medical degree; interest in physiology  Classical conditioning - digestive glands in dogs  Conditioned reflex - salivation at the sight of the bread was learned; a bell (conditioned stimulus)  salivation (conditioned reflex)  Conditioning process - a bell (conditioned stimulus) was repeatedly sounded before food (unconditioned stimulus) was placed in a dog's mouth to produce salivation (unconditioned reflex) John Broadus Watson and behaviourism  His method was based upon the principles of objective observation of behaviour, and placed emphasis on the importance of the environment in shaping human development  Watson's method = objective observation  Emphasized environmental stimuli and the response  Two important aspects to Watson's view of psychology o Environment is all-important o Heavily influenced by the work of Pavlov on the conditioned reflex  Little Albert - 9 month child - fear of a white rat and any animal that was white  Watson's theory had to do with learning  Watson's theory provided a basis for shaping the nature of psychological thought in the early 1900's  Loud sound (unconditioned stimulus)  fear (unconditioned response)  Rat (neutral stimulus) + loud sound (unconditioned stimulus)  fear (unconditioned response  Therefore: rat (conditioned stimulus)  fear (conditioned response) Mary Cover Jones and behaviour therapy  Worked for Watson as a research assistant  Interested in the question of whether Watson's procedure could be reversed - whether a child with a phobia could be cured using conditioned principles John Burrhus Skinner and operant conditioning  Operant conditioning  Basic differences between operant conditioning and classical conditioning - the former applies to reflex whiles the latter relates to voluntary behaviour  Reflexes are called respondent behaviour  A key term relevant to operant
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