PSYC 4010 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: John B. Watson, Mary Cover Jones, Albert Bandura

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Published on 15 Apr 2013
School
York University
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 4010
Professor
PSYC 4010 - Developmental Psychology
Child Development Thinking about Theories
Chapter 6 - Notes
Mechanism: the whole is equal to the sum of its parts
Introduction
Functionalism - James
Pavlov, Skinner, Watson and Bandura
A mechanistic outlook
Mind-body dualism
Plato
o Ideas = thoughts
The context in which behaviourism arose
Behaviourism developed in the prominence of Newtonian science
Newtonian science
o Introspection, revelation, reason and ordinary experience
Materialism
o Scientific principles could be applied to the study of living organism
Ivan Pavlov and the conditional reflex
Medical degree; interest in physiology
Classical conditioning - digestive glands in dogs
Conditioned reflex - salivation at the sight of the bread was learned; a bell (conditioned
stimulus) salivation (conditioned reflex)
Conditioning process - a bell (conditioned stimulus) was repeatedly sounded before food
(unconditioned stimulus) was placed in a dog's mouth to produce salivation
(unconditioned reflex)
John Broadus Watson and behaviourism
His method was based upon the principles of objective observation of behaviour, and
placed emphasis on the importance of the environment in shaping human development
Watson's method = objective observation
Emphasized environmental stimuli and the response
Two important aspects to Watson's view of psychology
o Environment is all-important
o Heavily influenced by the work of Pavlov on the conditioned reflex
Little Albert - 9 month child - fear of a white rat and any animal that was white
Watson's theory had to do with learning
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Document Summary

Mechanism: the whole is equal to the sum of its parts. Behaviourism developed in the prominence of newtonian science. Newtonian science: introspection, revelation, reason and ordinary experience. Materialism: scientific principles could be applied to the study of living organism. Classical conditioning - digestive glands in dogs. Conditioned reflex - salivation at the sight of the bread was learned; a bell (conditioned stimulus) salivation (conditioned reflex) Conditioning process - a bell (conditioned stimulus) was repeatedly sounded before food (unconditioned stimulus) was placed in a dog"s mouth to produce salivation (unconditioned reflex) His method was based upon the principles of objective observation of behaviour, and placed emphasis on the importance of the environment in shaping human development. Two important aspects to watson"s view of psychology: environment is all-important, heavily influenced by the work of pavlov on the conditioned reflex. Little albert - 9 month child - fear of a white rat and any animal that was white.

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