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Chapter 7

Child Development - Chapter 7 - Notes.docx

3 Pages

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PSYC 4010
Tifrah Warner

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PSYC 4010 - Developmental Psychology Child Development Thinking about Theories Chapter 7 – Notes Dialecticism: the child developing in a social world Introduction  Dialectical theories – based on the notion that development occurs as a result of a tension and interaction between internal and external influences  Vgotsky’s focus was on the development of cognition under social influence Dialecticism  Hegel proposed that reality is arrived at through a dialectic between three components – thesis, antithesis and synthesis  Synthesis in turn becomes the next thesis, and so the process continues  Circular processes Vgotsky’s dialectical theory  Study of children with disabilities  Central to Vygotsky’s theory is the notion that human cognition has its beginnings in human social life  Vygotsky emphasized that the child develops cognitively through interactions with others, hence his theory is dialectical  Vygotsky’s theory was instrumental, cultural and genetic  Individuals were active agents in creating their own development and learning, a feature held in common with Piaget’s theory  Language is a cultural tool in the development of thinking  Genetic – interaction with others, high-order mental functions develop from lower-order ones  Child development is made up of periods of relatively stable growth, crises and transformation – qualitatively distinct stages  The development of an individual can come to a standstill or even regress  5 stages in child development: infancy, early childhood, the pre-school period, school age and adolescence  Three developments – walking, speech and emotional reactions  Onset: sudden curiosity about words, and questions about every new thing  Conceptual development – unorganized heaps  grouped in terms of functional, concrete uses chain complexes  diffuse complexes  pseudo-concepts  abstract thought  Egocentric speech – child’s behaviour is controlled by verbal instructions from others, child talks loud (instructing self)  internalized thoughts  Vygotsky placed much emphasis on language; some activities are better learned by observation; all forms – cultural signs and symbols  Zone proximal development – distance between actual development level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers  ZPD – greater with a guide who is more sensitive to the child’s developmental needs  Joint collaboration – active shared participation for the purpose of solving a problem  Transfer of responsibility – adult’s decreasing role in regulating and managing behaviour or task-performance; child given more opportunities to perform the task independently  Criticized for being circular, not defined as a priority and only definable in relation to a response  Vygotskiian child = “Little apprentice” o Doise  Social interaction can promote cognitive development under some circumstances  He proposed that a child can develop cognitively if his/her schema comes into conflict with an alternative schema proposed by another person  He maintained that this can only happen in “relations of cooperation” rather than “relations of constraint”  Vygotsky believes that cognitive processes are directly derived fro
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