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Chapter 2

PSYC 4060 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Tacit Knowledge, Therapeutic Relationship, Intersubjectivity

Course Code
PSYC 4060
Tifrah Warner

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Chapter 2
The theoretical perspective
1. How is human nature described? And what layer of human existence is
a)- Assumption that all human beings are motivated part by wishes , fantasies or tacit
knowledge that is outside the awareness (unconscious)
-“We are not masters of our own houses”
- According to Freud, one’s sexuality and sexual experience had a huge impact on the
problems they faced.
-Over time however, Freud abandoned his long held theory that all of his clients had
been sexually abused as children and instead focused on the role that sexual instincts
play in the developmental process.
- Sexual feelings are present even during early infancy and give rise to sexually related
wishes and fantasies that are pushed out of the consciousness because hey were
experienced as too threatening.
- Memory came to be of great interest to Freud next
- Early 1900s, Freud had come to believe that all thinking and action were fuelled by a
type of psychic energy that is linked in a complex way to sexuality.
- This psychic energy (libidio) could be activated by both external and internal stimuli and
once it was activated, it needed to be discharged
b) i) our experience and actions are influenced by psychological processes that are not
part of our conscious awareness ii) theses unconscious processes are kept out of
awareness in order to avoid psychological pain.
-Verbal interpretation is a tool and the vehicle into the mind
-Traditionally know as intrapsychic
-Strtegies uses used to help the client overcome depression
2. How is the psychotherapeutic problem described?
-Traditionally, Freud understood the unconscious as an area of psychic
functioning in which impulses and wishes as well as certain memories are split of
from awareness. This occurs either because the associated affects are too
threatening or because the content of impulses and wishes themselves are
learned by the individual to be unacceptable through cultural conditioning.
Zainab Al Tukmachi
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-Contemporarily, Freud’s views were tweaked towards the presence of a
hypothetical psychic agency. - “it is more useful to simply conceptualize any
experience or action as reflecting a particular type of compromise between an
underlying wish vs. a fear of the consequences of achieving it.
The Intervention
1. What is the overall strategy, or main elements, used to address the
psychotherapeutic problem? and what is the primary goal of that
-Some of the main elements include;
-defense- intrapsychic process hat functions to avoid emotional pain by
pushing thoughts, wishes feelings or fantasies out of awareness.
- Transference – “transferring” a template from the past onto the present
-2 person Psychology (shift from Freud’s 1 person psychology)- the therapist
and the clients are viewed as co-participants who engage in an on-going process of
mutual influence at both the conscious and unconscious levels. The process of exploring
one’s own contributions to the therapeutic relationship often illuminates subtle aspects of
psychic functioning and interpersonal style in less-disturbed clients as well. 2-person
psychology emphasizes that the therapist often plays an important role in the emergence
of resistence
-the therapeutic alliance –establishing a good collaborative relationship with the
-transference-tendency for client to view his therapist in terms shaped by his or
her experiences – it helps the client bring memories that happened with them
that may have triggered their problems
--Countertransference- The therapist’s own feelings and reactions to the client’s
transference that are a function of their own unresolved conflict
-resistence- tendency for an individual to resist or change or act in a way that
undermines the therapeutic process – goes hand in hand with the concept of
-Enactment- Contemperory,
2. What are the most commonly used specific techniques? and what are
their specific goals?
- Verbal interpretation is a primary tool
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