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Chapter 3

PSYC 4060 Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Social Change, Family Values, Dream Interpretation

Course Code
PSYC 4060
Tifrah Warner

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Chapter 3
The theoretical perspective
1. How is human nature described? And what layer of human existence is
- Main human goal – to belong and feel significant
-Main target of Adlerian assessment is family
-Mental layer- cognition, constructing their world
-Theory emphasizes the social environment
-Alfred Adler viewed human nature from a holistic, teleological (what is coming in
the future not like Freud who looked at the past, phenomenological, social and
constructivist perspective
-People are seen as active creators of their own world
-Looking at the person as a whole and not breaking them into parts like Freud did
-The 12 basic concepts of importance to Adler –
-Holism- people should not be broken into parts – clients are approached as a
1. Teleology- Final cause – what purpose does it serve
2. Creativity-people are viewed as co-creators of the world
3. Phenomenology- important to perceive what we are born with
4. Soft determinism- stresses influences, not causes
5. Social field theory – where does the event take place -3 main tasks of life –
work, community and love
6. Motivation as striving – ppl are able to move from a perceived minus
situation to a perceived + situation
7. Idiographic orientation- idiographic rather than the nomothetic nature of
people- specifics are more important than generalities
8. Psychology of use – what use does someone make of what they have
9. Acting as if –ppl form their own maps of reality and act as if those masa re
accurate and are representative for the whole world- self-concept-who I am and I
am not, self-ideal- who I should or should not – worldview- all the instructions
about people life and the world , ethical convictions- all the instructions about
what is right or wrong
10. *** Self-fulfilling prophecy – When people act as if their maps were real, true
or correct- they tend to actively shape the feedback they receive – believeing is
11. Optimism- people are neither good or bad-
-describes personality form the prespective of the style of life
- does not dig deply into an idea or stage of development, it rather it chooses to looks
across situations and processes to detect patterns and themes
- private logic – thinking unique to the person “people know more than they understand”
Zainab Al Tukmachi
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2. How is the psychotherapeutic problem described?
- Temperament is inborn
-Lifestyle is the use of personality, traits, temperament and psychological and
biological processes in order to find a place in the social matrix of life. There are
many factors that influence the development of the life style.
1. Degree of activity- mismatch b/w the activity levels of the child and the
care taker could mean trouble later in life
2. Organ inferiority (barometer of mental health- If the child has some type
of special function in their organs ( if they are ill) it may drive the people
around them to treat the child differently which might influence the lifestyle
3. Birth order and sibling relationship- Sibling relationships and the role
children carve out for themselves in childhood often manifests later in life
as the stance adults take towards socialization across many different
contexts and roles
4. Family values-maternal, paternal and familial – to accept the family
values therefore becomes synonymous with fitting n with the key authority
figures of the family; to reject allows no ally and no bonding with other key
5. family atmosphere- children’s reactions to the prevailing family
atmosphere often helps set their moods as adults
6. Parenting style – Adlerian advocate a democratic parenting style
The Intervention
1. What is the overall strategy, or main elements, used to address the
psychotherapeutic problem? And what is the primary goal of that
-Psychotherapy generally has 4 stages; (overlapping stages)
Relationship- building, investigating and uncovering the dynamics of the clients,
interpretation of the lifestyle, reorientation
--Community feeling – feeling of belonging to group
-Reason – intelligence and reason could be together , but some could be
intelligent but not reasonable
-Life tasks- main theatres of operation – finding one’s place
-Safeguarding operations – mechanisims people use to evade life-tasks
-Stress – doubting one’s place in the world
-Unconscious – a verb rather than a noun
-Movement – best indicator of a persons intentions is what he or she does
The clients are interviewed and the interview covers the main areas; 73-75
-Sibling relationships and birth-order-dynamics
-Sibling ratings on a list of traits
-Physical development
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