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Chapter 5

PSYC 4060 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: Existentialism, Hedonism, Operant Conditioning


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 4060
Professor
Tifrah Warner
Chapter
5

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The theoretical perspective
1. How is human nature described? and what layer of human existence is
emphasized?
-Rational emotive behaviour therapy
- A theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy
-Emotional consequences are created by the individual's belief system
- Views cognition and emotion integratively, with thought, feeling, desires and action
interacting with each other
- It is a comprehensive cognitive-affective-behavioural theory of practice and
psychotherapy
- Considers the importance of both mind and body or of thinking feeling ,wanting and of
behaviour
-It takes on a holistic approach
- humans precieve, think , emote and behave simultaneously –they are cognitive,
conative and motoric all the same time
-Rept is in many respects existential , phenomenologically oriented therapy because its
goals overlap with the usual existentialist goal of helping clients to define their own
freedom , cultivate individuality
- emphasizes the biological aspects of human personality
- rebt holds that 1) people are born constructivists and have considerable sources for
human growth 2) they are in many important ways able to change their social and
personal destinies 3)they have powerful innate tendencies to think irrationally and to
defeat themselves
- emphasizes that people nonetheless have the choice of changing their dysfunctional
behaiors and specifically shows them many ways of doing so
- stresses flexible thinking and behaving that helps them remove the rigidities to which
they often easily fall victim
-rebt is humanistic and to some degree existentiolist
2. How is the psychotherapeutic problem described?
-ppl have predispotions to be interested in other people, to learn from their
mistakes and to actualize their potential for life and growth and also tend to
be self-destructive, to be short-range hedonists to avoid thinking things
through, to procrastinate , to repeat the same mistakes, to be superstitious
and to be intolerant, to be perfectionistic and grandiose and to avoid
actualizing their potential for growth.
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-People's tendency to irrational thinking, self-damaging habituations, wishful
thinking and intolerance is frequently exacerbated by their culture and their
family group
- REBT holds the most neurotic problems involve unrealistic illogical slef-
defeating , thinking and that if disturbance- creating ideas are vigorously
disputed by logicoempirical and pragmatic thinking , they can be minimized.
- the reason why people usually overreact or underreact to adversities is that
they now have some dogmatic, irrational, unexamined beliefs and these
beliefs are unrealistic that they will not withstand rational scrutiny
- Rebt shows how activating events or adversities(A) in ppl's lives contribute
to but do not directly cause emotional consequences (C) these
consequences stem from people's interpretations of the activating events or
adversities _ that is from their unrealistic and overgeneralized Beliefs (B)
about those events
- REBT strongly holds in its theory and practice , the primacy of demandingness,
specifically emphasizing should and tacit musts. REBT practitioners assume their
clients have explicit and implicit musts that contribute to their emotional disturbances
- basic tenet of REBT is that emotional upsets largely stem from irrational beliefs –
these beliefs are irrational because they magically insist that something in the universe ,
should , ought and must be different from the way it is-(162)
- once you become anxious , once you become depressed you make yourself depressed
about being depressed and so on (162)
- there no such thing as the unconscious – but it does say that people have many
thoughts feeling and even acts of which they are not aware
- neurotic disturbance occurs when individuals demand that their wishes be satisfied,
that they succeed and be approved , that others treat them fairly and the world be more
pleasant
The Intervention
1. What is the overall strategy, or main elements, used to address the
psychotherapeutic problem? and what is the primary goal of that
strategy?
- people are born with a potential to be rational( self-constructing) as well as irrational
(self-defeating)
- ppl have predispotions to be intrested in other people, to learn from their mistakes and
to actualize their potential for life and growth and also tend to be self-destructive, to be
short-range hedonists to avoid thinking things through, to procrastinate , to repeat the
same mistakes, to be superstitious and to be intolerant, to be perfectionistic and
grandiose and to avoid actualizing their potential for growth.
- helps clients acquire a more realistic, tolerant philosophy of life
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