SOSC 1000 Reading
Sagoff: Excerpt from Social Conflict and Environmental Law: Ethics, Economics, and equity
-We act as consumers to get what we want for ourselves.
- We act as citizen to achieve what we think is right or best for the community.
-Are the goals we set for ourselves as consumers the same as we set for ourselves as citizens?.
-No they are not, we vote for the good of society but act as consumers for US
-role as consumer and citizen should be independent and distinct
Shusky: Social Science: Between Natural Science and the Humanities
-Anthropology is the study of human societies, cultures, and their development
-Karl Marx argued that the value of goods was determined by the amount of labour required to produce
them, other economists argued that the value of something was determined by the consumer
-Psychologists perceive behaviour on the basis of personality
-Processes of perception include rationalization (providing a reason for failure in order to obtain a desire),
projection (adjusting by attributing aspects of your own personality to others), and identification
- A status is a complex set of norms directing behaviour and beliefs within a society
Shusky: The History of Social Science
-A paradigm is a general theoretical framework that guides research in science
-Adam Smith claimed that the value/price of goods was determined by a combination of wages, rent, ad
profit, with profit determined by supply and demand. This implied that a social order grew out of the
decisions of a large number of people, each person trying to maximize their self interest. He laid the
foundation of Economics, and ended with Karl Marx.
Thomas Hobbes (Human behaviour) - Hobbes thought humans must act in a state of nature, and all
humans would compete strongly against each other. Humans would be continually at war with themselves
until they could agree to subject themselves to a common power.”Lets each limit our personal freedom in
order to have some social stability”. This is called a social contract. John Locke- learning is important in human perception, attacked divine right of kings. Political power is
only justified by the public good. Any government that violates rights, freedoms, trust is invalid, Personal
rights, (i.e right to own property) takes priority over rights of government.
Mercantilism- governmental regulation of all sectors of the economy in order to increase a nation’s
Jean Jacques Rousseau- saw humans as good, transformed into evil beings by their social environment.
Moral/Psychological condition of an individual closely tied to structure of society. People would never be
truly free unless you live in a society of equals.
August Comte – He laid the foundation of sociology, and even for psychology and anthropology.
Wilhelm Wundt - Built an evolutionary paradigm for human thought, but it was marginal to his work in
experimental psychology and his focus on mental activity.
An ideology is shared ideas, perceptions, values, and beliefs through which members of society interpret
history and contemporary social events and which shape their expectations and wishes for the future.
A dominant ideology is a particular set of ideas, values, ect which is most widely shared and has the
greatest impact on social action at any particular time in any particular societ