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Smith vs Marx. Revised.docx

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Social Science
SOSC 1000
Gerry Goldberg

1 Michelle GallardoArévalo Student Number: 212871406 SOSC 1140 TA: Tammy Tutorial #2 Capitalism embodies the notion of ‘division of labor’, which thus co-relates to the unjust treatment of workers. This assembles to uncover the reason for ‘wealth of nations’ 2 and the mishaps due to their wealth and ranking systems.Adam Smith as well as Karl Marx raise two different theories that contribute to the understanding of ‘division of labor’as well as how to increase productivity. Where Smith believes ranking and work distribution generally benefit society as a whole- Marx views a negative outcome to that notion. Both highly respected social and economic thinkers pose rather different outlooks and outcomes for society in this epidemic. In addition, both creative thinkers model an ideal solution on the deeming question of ‘how to increase productivity’. Smith understands wealth not solely by the money you attain but rather, it is of higher importance on the productivity of labor (Wealth of Nations 9). Division of labor according to Smith produces a positive outcome. He states “the greatest improvements in the productivity of labor, and the greater part of the skill, dexterity and judgment with which it is any where directed, or applied, seem to have been the effects of the division of labor” (The Wealth of Nations 10). This statement reiterates the grasp Smith comprehended for the idea of the primary component of increased productivity. Smith’s concept of increased productivity includes the breaking down of heavy jobs into smaller condensed ones; this can aid workers on how much time it takes one worker to complete their given task (The Wealth of Nations 11). In addition, it allows workers to have knowledge about one specific area of work and be impeccably certain on that role rather than many at a time. His reasoning developed from a ‘Pin Factory” scenario, where a worker who is assigned multiple tasks is less likely to exceed at all of them, rather being focused on solely one (The Wealth of Nations 11). He expands this theory of a Pin Factory so those who are reading, understand the improvements due to division of labor. He beings by explaining 2 3 Gallardo that pin workers could produce only a few down pins a day, however with ‘division of labor’in place each factory worker can devote their labor into completing one given task (The Wealth of Nations 12). This can allow the factory to produce thousands more pins than what they were previously making. For this reason, Smith believes that the workers themselves as well as capitalism are the roots for division of labor. The workers are the ones implicate productivity, which transforms into more products and in turn more pay. The market implicates, whose motivating and driving the work force to produce at a faster and more effective manner. Initially this idea was why Smith advocated division of labor to the extent that he did. Amongst this theory, he additionally believed that there were three general reasons of how to increase work quality and productivity. These reasons embodied; dexterity, time management and usage of machines (The Wealth of Nations 12). Dexterity allowed workers to devote their paid working time to their specified operation, thus this made workers perfect their part of work. This can be applied to many different trades of business. Just as a bakery needs certain sections just as a construction site does as well. This point of view allows productivity to flow smoothly and in an organized manner, with fewer errors. Secondly, time management is always key in any workers environment. Smith imposed the idea that switching trades let alone their necessary working tools were very difficult (The Wealth of Nations 13). Therefore if two trades could be carried on in the same workhouse, increased time would be saved and put into better use. Lastly, the correct usage of mechanical tools should be promoted to workers. Machines that are primarily created to lessen the workload for employees will allow them to have time to do other productive assignments. For example, if a given machine is 4 aiding the production of product, workers can use extra time to productively calculate numbers. Size of the given market also contributes to the outcome whether it be productivity, division of labor or the surplus. Market sizes regulate the extent of the division that needs to be made and supported. Larger markets have more demand, where in comparison rural or smaller markets are differently distributed at a slower pace.Alarge market to consume is needed to support the demand and the workers afloat. Equally as market sizes are important to Smith, the acknowledgement of value was another factor.According to Smith, product value is not just how much something cost but rather how long it took to create and the products it took to create (The Wealth of Nations 15). This is clearly shown in the product market nowadays. Smith demonstrated this theory in a comparison of diamonds versus water (The Wealth of Nations 15), where diamonds are so expensive yet not useful where as water is much less expensive and very useful.As our market functions, the value is rightly given due to the time of production. The time and effort it takes to produce and perfect a diamond or a laptop could be hundreds of hours. In comparison, the effort and manufacturing to create bottled water or candy bars is much less work grueling. He concludes, that value of products is a very tricky field to create one conclusion to, but market value should be represented on the efforts it took to create it (The Wealth of Nations 16). Moreover, the discussion of division of labor can also be embodied with the ‘wealth of nations’but rather more the ‘mistreatment of the working class’.As previously stated, Smith understands the positive understanding with division of labor. He analyses this theory and how it can increase productivity.Although, the division of labor may be 4 5 Gallardo perceived as a golden idea, society begins to separate- rich vs. poor. The accumulation of capital overrides the comprehension of specialty work. Smith’s radical thinking lead himself to believe that a nation’s wealth just consisted of their own goods as well as how good a nation produces as a whole. In the midst of the break down of production, it also develops surplus. Surplus can then be exchanged with others or in any case invested within the line of work. To Smith, surplus was best used when better invested within the company to create more productivity (Wealth of Nations 598). Yet he notices a downfall to his division of labor theory, he proposes the idea that if your operation of work is always the same it eventually becomes numb and useless, “The man whose whole life is spent performing a few simple operations, of which the effects too are, perhaps, always the same or very nearly the same has no occasion to exert his understanding, or to exercise his invention in finding out expedients for removing difficulties, which never occur. He naturally loses, therefore
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