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Social Science
SOSC 1000
Timothy Deluc

SOSC 1000 Course kit reading summary/notes Mark Sagoff: At the Shrine of Our lady of Fatima or why political questions are not all economic Finding the equilibrium between consumer and being a citizen has been that question that is questioned. Being a faithful consumer can you actually go through what you want at the moment and relieve your goals for the future. People are indecisive and contradicting to their words and actions. However, in the end is what we vote, choose, or choices that’s best for the total economy or is it to just please ourselves. Shusky: social Science between natural science and the humanities 1 Adam smith Auguste comte: was to discover an ethical system for strengthening family life Scientist must consider when doing experiments of what’s considered good or bad in the eyes of the citizen. As each person’s perspective will differ and each results will be different. Creating a hypothesis, conducting experiments, and finalizing the hypotheses with a conclusion, a rewording of the hypothesis. However, without testing you would not be able to find other connections, such as finding the relationship between volume, pressure and heat for a chemist. Chapter 1: The nature of social science Factory workers reaching quota, however incentives were given if over productions were made. The workers don’t utilize this chance to make more money instead, uses it to cover up slow days or processing problem. To look further into it, the observers who are trying to increase the production asks the workers individually, nonetheless finding not a straight answers, but more confusion to the situation. We are asked how would we overcome this situation? Many scientist would disagree on changing the factor. Scientist could not “answer fully questions about what is fair or unfair, good or bad. Ethics and objectivity in social science Two different levels of analysis: - direct analysis o amoral o Objective o Careful recorder o Describing the subject in much detail as possible Sociograms: - Charts based on the results of interview sin which people are asked whom they like most in a group or whom they dislike most o Complex ones would have more options The economic perspective Utility: The benefit of having an item/object Diminishing returns: law of diminishing returns act on consumers Marginal utility: how much a additional item/object compared to utility you receive from it The Psychological Perspective Personality: actions that reflects the person The genetic basis - Biological determinism o The idea that some races are superior to others in such areas as academic perfoemce - Biosocial formation - Conditioning o Classical conditioning  Reported by Ivan Pavlov  A stimulus produces a response (substitution)  Teaching a new trick to a dog (EX) o Operant conditioning  B.F Skinner  Rewards for completing an action Adjustment Processes - Rationalization o Attitude  From Aesop’s Fable o Providing a reason to failure to get what they want o Getting over projected amount - Projection o Pushing own personalities o Greed - Identification o Following your inspiration - All of these methods are ways to cope The Perspective of sociology and political science - Status o Complex set of norms to describe a society o Can be determined to be a position - Informal organization o Interaction of people working within a framework of formal rules and policies o Sentiments  Ex. Proper amount of production - The concept of function o Functional relations  Mutual relations among the parts of a social; system The Anthropological perspective - Culture and norms o Culture  Contains all actions, including technological advancement and material goods  More complex explanation would be a person’s perspective o Norms  Rules  Proper status behavior  Ex. Wording if the pronunciation was mixed  Ex. Cross dressing - Idea; versus Real Culture o Understanding the similarity of status and norm would help o Form o Meaning - The concept of function o ? Chapter 2: The History of social Science - The structure of scientific revolutions o Paradigm  A general theoretical framework that guides research in a science  Shifts results o Advancement in science will change the perspective of how scientist look at things o Daniel fusfeld  Theories are accepted if they are useful - The origins of social science o Intellectual  People were to think for themselves o Internal conflict  Strife between protestants and catholics o Thomas Hobbes  Human condition studies  Social contract where it limits freedom  Angered the king of the time o John Locke  Attacked the general acceptance belief that innate ideas governed much of human behavior • Contained on who’s the king • Individual rights • Private property o Mercantilism and Colonialism  Mercantilism • Foreign trade and became useful doctrine in the colonial era  Colonialism • ? o Jean Jacques Rousseau  Source of wealth • Production vs. natural products  Criticized the social order  Social greed - Political, Economic, and sociological thought, 1750 – 1850 o Adam Smith  Individual interest was best for the economy  Increasing utility through our own action  Free competitions  Trades o Thomas Malthus  The economy had a relation to the population size as it grew geometrically o Comte and de Tocqueville  Alexis de Tocqueville • A political scientist • Saw democracy was avoidable  Auguste comte • Created the word sociology • Saw democracy as non avoidable • Positivism o Where intellectual thought relied on science  Social statics • Forces that gold society together  Social dynamics • Causes of change o Karl Marx  Against capitalism  Value of goods and services is determined by the amount of labour required for their production  Emergence of classless society - Social Science at the end of the nineteenth century o Thorstein Veblen  Continued the work of marx, capitalism on society  Society became more materialistic  Relation between technology and social change o Max Webber  Protestantism o Emile Durkheim  Anomie • Shows a high suicide rate in society o Tylor and Morgan  Edward taylor • Culture = province of anthropology • Evolution of religion • Cultural relativisim o Evaluates the practice of other societies only within their own cultural setting  Lewis morgan • Relationship between marriage and kinsip • Evolution of human society o Relation between cultural ideas of property and forms of government  Defined cross-cultural comparison o Wilhelm Wundt  Made psychology - Social Science in the twentieth century o Developments in psychology  Sigmund freud • Cured hysteria and other symptoms of neurosis • Studied dreams to create solutions to problems • Unconscious theories  Development of dependency to independent  Humanism of shared work  Psychoanalysis  B.F Skinner • Theory is based on laboratory animals • Formation of communes relying on positive reinforcement • Between the two poles of introspection and experimentation  John Dewey • Knowledge = human survival o Developments in Sociology and Anthropology  Unitary complexity  Institutions • Patterned way of performing some general activity within a society  Institutionalization • Where society is integrated  A. R. Radcliffe-brown o Developments in political science and economics  Political behavior  Ki A View from Above In the Beni - Beni Bolivian province - William Denevan : the Pristine muth o The belief that the Americas in 1491 were an almost untouched, even edenic land People thought of the land in many ways with clear or little evidence. However the arguments that still occur are is it actually true or it just for personal interest. Human alter the nature to make it preserve it for a longer period but would that be true? With organization and corporations trying to take over the land for their own benefits, what would actually be the result of Beni? Holmberg’s Mistake The mistake that Holmberg’s made was that he only looked through on perspective of the Beni civilization. He did not investigate into the history of the people or how the land came to be. He believed that the people and the land lived coexisting with each other. Later on, more scientist’s came and figured the land isn’t shaped through natural nature but of human made. Also the civilization that Holmberg’s lived with were refugees of a war occurring to catch the Siriono. Without clear evidence on his claim, he published a book without further facts. Empty of Mankind and its works - Agency o Not actors in their own right o Passive recipients of whatever windfalls or disasters happenstance - Las Casas o Anti Spanish view In the past, the Indians were claimed to be barbaric, only thinking of war and expansion of their crop lands. The Europeans thought the civilization as a unchanging process and deemed them unfit or under civilized society. However, through the technological advancement, clearer understanding of human society and human psychology, they started to look back on why certain things occurred. The Other Neolithic Revolutions - Neolithic revolution o Invention of:  Farming - Olmec o The first technological complex culture in the hemisphere o Invention of zero The connection of the civilization is hard to explain. Who is the rightful owner of a certain land and what your background would be cannot be determined. People that lived on new America could be people from Australia or Europe that crossed over the iced that occurred during the ice age. However, that isn’t that significant discovery. The significant discovery was the number zero, it helped with mathematics, technological advancement, and science. However it was found in the Olmec society, how was it that the Mayan’s and other Mesoamerican’s also be using zero? A Guided Tour - Epigraphers o Scholar of ancient writing - Kaan o Kingdom of the snakes Why did civilizations in certain areas die out? Most would consider the fact that ice age or droughts, a source of food for the society died off which created the land to be uninhabitable. Many cities near the Mesoamerica have had the same issue. Ideology and Social Organization - Social critic o Points out the inconsistencies, the lack of congruence between empirical evidence and ideological statements - Social organization o Discrepancies between it and their observations of social reality - Social analyst o Understand why people believe what they believe - Adoption of a counter-ideology o Placing of faith in an alternative version of society Answers given to a questions can be looked into different perspective. Growing up, you experience different answers and learn different things in a certain perspective as you would not think of questioning their answer. You would learn it in that persons perspective. 1 - Acceptance - Rejections - Liberalism - Socialism - Liberal democracy o Equality o Individualism o Material prosperity o Personal freedom Counter ideology, creating choices for yourself to believe and to resolve situation. Such example is how you would run a country. China being communist and Canada being democracy, there are no incorrect answer but a different view of how the country wants to proceed in the world. 2 - Ideology o Shared ideas o Perception o Values o Beliefs - Dominant ideology o Set of ideas o Perception o Values o Beliefs o Most widely shared and great impact - Counter Ideology o Set of ideas o Perception o Values o Beliefs o Held by substantial minority and noticeable impact - Theory o Explicit assumptions o A reasoning o Demonstrated o Evidence 3 - Sectarian o Ideologies are the core of organized group behavior - Extreme individualist o Society has absolutely no claims on the individual, no rules, government, or constraints - Extreme collectivisits o Society always has precedence over individuals and the right to demand conformance with rules for the public good - Extreme elitism o There should be rulers and the rulers should have compete power - Extreme egalitarianism o All people should be absolutely equal in condition, not just opportunities Individualist and Market based Ideologies Individualist Anarchism and Libertarianism - Anarchists o No government and social restrictions on personal liberty - Libertarians o Accept the necessity of government, but would restrict its functions to the defence of person and property o Firmly believes in pure capitalism o Everything would be a commodities of sale Classical and contemporary liberalism - Classical Liberalism o Absolute free market - In Canada, both social and conservative makes the society whole - Liberal view o Equality of opportunity is sufficient and that such equality is largely achieved within the present social system o Unconcerned about classes - Government is suppose to mediate fair and just equality Collectivist Positions - Collectivist positions o Argument that the society is an organic whole - Society is separated into left and right o Egalitarian  Social democratic  Socialist  Syndic-anarchist  Communist o Hierarchically  Conservative  Corporatist  Neo-conservative  Fascist Social Democratic - Accepts basic value of liberalism o Emphasis on equality o Classes barriers Socialist - Displace or enslave labour - Communist Syndico-Anarchism (or socialistAnarchism) - Anarchism o Belief in the surpremacy of individuals over society - 2 branches o Rights of workers organization to organize production o Small communities to govern themselves Communism - Production is socialized and all workers, or their direct representatives , have a say in how the society is managed. - Must be destroyed by force, and that a vanguard of advanced thinkers may required to lead a workers revolution o Hostile to democratic Traditional Conservatism - Conservatism o High value to class inequalities  Hierarchy  Paternalisitic relations between capital and labour o Assigned places Corporatism - Corporatism o Shares similarities to conservatism, o Looks into a more economic life compared to conservatism Neo – Conservatism - Not a ruling class has the obligation to care for its subjects - But there is a ruling class Fascism - Extreme form of corporation - Force in controlling dissidents - Nazi Dominant Ideology - Private property rights - Economic drive for profits 4 Environmentalist started to get into the political scene. Defending the current nature we have left, many economist think of the land of their own and can do whatever they want. However, it’s harming the overall nature of things. Also religion parties started to enter into the political status. 5 - Deprivation o Opportunities to exceed the common condition - Difference of social organization and capitalist organization in Canada o Legitimacy of inequality - Noblesse oblige - Class changes o Incentives for invention o Legal protection o Freedom o Property rights - Enclosure act o Pushed rural people off land and obliged them to enter urban employment o Decrease farmers o School helped teach them skills and get a higher wage paying job  Equal rights for job opportunity - Wealthy does not have to feed the poor like the old age - Nation state o Territory larger than a feudal estate which the resident population can effectively defend against outsider while sustaining their own livelihood - Colonies were land with natural resources to send back to mother country o Spices and such o Also for over population - Bourgeoisie o Industrial and financial leaders of the movement - New barriers for freedom 6 - The industrial society is not a static social organization - The faster the advancement of the society, the more faults we would have to create our own demise - Progress theory. Page 71 - Protestantism -> Catholicism Even though we technologically advanced, we created problems with it such as enslaving ourselves for the demand of the product in order to meet the demand. We always adapt to the new situations, however, after we create a new society the whole cycle revolves again. 7 One: Mythistory, or truth, myth, history, and historians - Myth are fake - Facts are truth o However facts can always be revised o Facts to one historian can be a myth to another  Historians write in a way which depicts a heroic act, which makes it not entirely true  Insights more conflict and alienate the other person/country  Historians should be reporting on a unbias past in order to not create tension between two ……….  o Which created the evidence theory  It is to chronically organize the information into a favorable list such as stars - Patterns o Theories - Sharing the truth o Creates a motive to live o Knowledge - Religious views o There are many which creates factions - Common past o Looking for the minorities in the land - Jews history o Gods power over human affairs - Greeks o All free men equal o Common obedience to law - Balance between truth, truths, and myth o Truth  Human behavior is an unattainable goal, however delectable as an ideal o Truths  What historians achieve when they bend their minds as critically and carefully as they can to the task of making their account of public affairs credible as well as intelligible to an audience that shares enough of their particular outlook and assumptions to accept wht they say o Myth  Constitute truth for some and always will be myth for others • If you believe it or not o Creo quia absurdum - Meeting foreign civilization would help to gather the truth as you isolate the not so important information Two: The Care and repair of Public Myth - Myth o Based on faith more then fact Columbus and Western Civilization - “Who controls the past controls the future. And who controls the present controls the past” o George Orwell - Columbus o Wrote letters of how peaceful the natives were o However only saw them as servants o Wanted to convert the natives to Christians o Gave quota of gold to mine or their arms would be hacked off o Did not have enough gold so they sent slaves o - Samuel Eliot Morison o Many fled, died, and committed suicide because of the quota o Stated Columbus to be the reason of the depopulation of the natives o Many females were raped o Genocide o - Las Casas o A priest that spoke for the natives o Sickness became a major issue o Many illness were brought by the Spaniards - Chauncey DePew o Saw Columbus day of wealth and prosperity o Patriotism? Whats that to him  Conquered people - Western Civilization o Great Idea - Boston globe o MIT students got together and discussed progression  they thought that we should start thinking about sustainability compared to innovation of progression - Alam Bloom o Supporter of the Columbus discovery What is the western civilization? We depict all the statistics that are beneficial to be patriotic to our country but leave out the cold hard cruelty in order to gain the patriotism. Columbus’s discovery would be one of the cases that people would consider either it was a great discovery or a genocide that happened. The Family as a Corporate Group The Solidarity of the family - Sarakatsani, the blood which children inherit not only represents, but it ‘is’ the physical and moral attributes that form their social personalities - Blood is intimately related to courage - Courage and physical strength are qualities that men require - Hierarchy in family on page 102 second paragraph - Marriage o Boy must be noble and women must be a virgin o Divorce was permitted:  Under Adultery o Once they have intercourse, the bond will be till death o A illegitimate child will be send out of the town without mercy, as a thing without honour - Material goods belonging to it are regarded as a common stock of wealth providing means for the subsistence of its members - Ultimogeniture o A principle of inheritance whereby the youngest son succeeds to the estate of his ancestor - Primogeniture o First born or eldest child inherit - Fratricide o Killing of brother - A son may not be disinherited - Fortiori - Public behavior o Page 104, 191, paragraph 2 - Camaraderie o Friendship - Whether or not honour is lost depends o The manliness of the man o Sexual shame of the women - Therefore, in most cases, the absence of passive solidarity in blood vengeance and the removal of the killer to prison and later to voluntary exile prevents the execution of vengeance. - Unmarried brother are allowed to have vengeance, unless the victim has a son, which he will take the vengeance Hostility Between Unrelated Families - Affairs of honour st o 1 violation of family honour, which is an outrage on one person o 2 act of vengeance - One family goes up in the world the others must necessarily come down - Retaliation The Values of Prestige 1. The Hierarchy - Hierarchy of prestige o Precise knowledge of the genealogy, wealth, moral character, and conduct of each family - Ostentatious pride o impress or boast 2. Honour - Honour o Condition of integrity, of being ‘ untouched’ by this kind of attack, insult, or betrayal. - To be a man o be courageous and fearless o strong in body and in spirit o well endowed with testicles  ruthless ability in an form of endeavor - quality required of women o instinctive revulsion from sexual activity o attempt in dress, movement, and attitude, to disguise the fact that she possesses the physical attribute of her sex o virgins o married women must have thoughts of a virgins 3. The Honourable Man : Positive ideals - Division of labour o Tasks which are normally performed by on sex are carried out by person of the other sex in an emergency - Women o Merciless routine of work and suffering o Camaraderie and the consciousness of a common fate help them to face ot o Solidarity of women is often expressed in the frequent discussion among those related by kinship or marriage of their common subjection to men in sexual activity o Women has the sexual ability to lure men, who cannot refuse o Must cover from head to toe o Women of age 16 cannot leave the house because it’s a sign of looking for husband which puts shame within the family o Most not show emotion o Must walk behind the husband o Most be healthy at all times - Sexual activity o Produce children o Cannot be on spiritual days o Secrecy and without speech - Family head o Caution o Moderation o Self-restraint 4. The Honourable Man: Negative Restrictions 5. The Material Elelments in prestige a) Numbers - Mass o Number of son/brothers o More sons more honor - Revenge b) Wealth - Number of vistors mean higher repu
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