1. Segue From Aboriginal Peoples to Immigration
a. Last week’s Federal Court decision: Harry Daniels et al v. Her Majesty the Queen et
• No one knows if this case has been appealed.
• Procreation of land, and destruction of aboriginal politics.
b. Attawapiskat Chief Teresa Spence and the “Idle No More” Movement
• “idle No More” = Symbolic of trying to get Aboriginal peoples’ organized at the
grassroots level. Who are the Grassroots? Grassroots that comes from below rather
than something from above. Something that comes from everyday aboriginal
people not non-aboriginal politicians. Non aboriginal people have been making
decisions of aboriginal people communities. Implicate non aboriginal politics but
elites. Today’s aboriginal people are working in a hierarchal process and this is not
aboriginal like. Aboriginal male leaders are trapped within a system that is entirely
by the government Indian act that makes every move for them.
• How did it start: Bill C-45 went through the House of Commons and passed a
month ago in December
There are 2 aspects:
Utaleteral changes of the Indian act: easier surrender of reserved land
Changes to the navigable waters protection act: loosened environmental navigable
water in Canada. Spread around the world.
• Update: there was a meeting on Friday but she did not attend because the governor
general was not there and Harper decided who was allowed to go.
c. welcome letter from Jason Kenney (Minister of Citizenship, Immigration and
• Canadian nationalism (mythology)
2. Immigration and the Social/Legal Construction of “White Canada”
• Assumptions about whois a desirable immigrant have reflected not only that
Canada is a white nation but also the demands of state of the labor
• In theory, not practice, 1960: we did not have racist laws.
• Demand of state for Labour: immigration is and has been an important part of
federal employment strategy.
• Birth rate of Canada has been too low to fulfill the needs of the labor market.
Immigrants use it to give them jobs, that Canadians don’t want.
• Compels people to labor in high exploited areas.
a. British North America (BNA) Act (1867) • Formed Canada; “A citizen was a male British subject aged 21 years and upwards
being a householder” only if you were born in British territories or Canada.
b. Naturalisation Act (1881)
• Who was or was not qualified for citizenship. British subjects who were
“disabled”: were not qualified. Meant “the status being an infant, lunatic. Idiot or
c. Chinese Immigration Act (aka “Chinese head tax”) (1885)
• Chinese men arrived in the later half of the 1800’s
• 1700 Chinese male workers were employed in the CPR, paid half the wages of the
other workers; more dangerous work was given to the Chinese. When CPR was
completed, many had no jobs.
d. Chinese Exclusion Act (1923)
• Asiatic Exclusion League! Government tried to discourage Chinese people to
immigrate. A Head Tax made it impossible for the women to occupancy their men.
$50 rose to $100 and then $500 in 1903. In 1923 a law passed that phorbited the
Chinese to come. It later changed in 1947.
e. Gentlemen’s Agreement (1907)
f. Japanese internment during WW II
• After pearl harbor there was a lot of racism towards Japanese Canadians
• 80% were citizens and were still put in camps and their property was auctioned off.
g. Continuous Journey Stipulation (1908)
• Canada was part of the British Empire and so was India.
• Any citizen from the empire ought to be able to enter. The journey stipulation
made it impossible for Indians; immigrants who came to Canada must come
directly and not stop at every journey. Possible for Britain’s and impossible for
h. Gurdit Singh and Komagata Maru (1914)
Film Clip: Continuous Journey (Canada, 2004)
• Anti-colonial activist: these migrants would have fulfilled the qualifications for the
immigration to Canada, except for the Journey stipulation.
• Arrived in Vancouver (Stanley Park-1940) th