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SOSC 1430 (15)


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Social Science
SOSC 1430
Soren Frederiksen

RETHINKING GENDER MATTERS IN DEVELOPMENT - quote on working, independence, socio-economic power within work for women (385) - many agencies believe that policies focused on bettering the situation of women, they only better the practical needs rather than strategically (387) - strategic needs: genders needs that women identify because of their subordinate position to men. Meeting strategic gender needs helps women achieve greater equality and changes the subordinate position i.e. abolition of sexual division of labour, less burden on domestic/child care, removal of laws that inhibit women from owning property/access to credit/their body, freedom of choice & equality, & more power/control against violence (388) - practical needs: genders needs that women relate to in terms of their socially accepted roles does not challenge or better the situation in division of labour, domestic life it is rather response to neccesities of women and to their daily responsibilities (388) - WID: belief that development process was deteriorating women’s position in developing countries solution: integration. It looks at womens lack of access to resources as a result of their subordination (without raising the question about the role of gender relations in restricting that access in the first place (390) doesn’t fix problem: give a man a fish he’ll eat for a die, but teach him how to fish and he’ll eat forever - WAD: questioning that WID looked at exclusion of women from the development process rather than the process that was the problem. - DAWN: development policies ignore the structural constraints faced by low income and middle income countries  unless the models of development were transformed into more equitable approach, there could be no justice for southern women (390) - GAD: looks at gender relations and how it affects development projects and gendered processes of development this approach has been taken into a range of development practices/policies Environmental Conservation: - environment also an issue in development  look at scarcity of natural resources, the exploitation for commercial use or subsistence livelihoods, and future conservation of quality/quantity of resources (390) -  ecofeminism approach ; Vandana Shiva (ecofeminist): development model has promoted economic development, but as been harmful to environment and women by disregarding both as spiritual and sacred elements that are interconnected - ecofeminist tied with WED: urges policy makers to identify women and the key agents of environmental conservation, and to create women only projectsi.e.: community & joint forestry management: to increase peoples incentive to sustainable forestry; these programs highlight the importance of conservation, the right of women to land, and allow women to venture into the market of forestry (391) -  recognition of roles of forestry and conservation, as well as role of women and their knowledge  very related to WID approach where mobilization of women’s labour into forestry and benefit from their skills and knowledge (391) - however, there is little concern with the time, energy, and opportunity costs of women’s involvement in such projects, and women’s labour is simply seen as flexible input into forestry management and ignoring the fact that women switch time/effort from independent projects/work that may give them income (391) -  also, women are rarely involved and their voices are rarely heard in project i.e. India, authorities have closed newly forested areas; this cuts women off from major sources of firewood, domestic use, and income (392) - WID AND WED both focuses on women, rather than on gender relations and men’s gendered resource-related activities  ignores class and other differences between women (392) - WED discussion and approach changed over time women seen as victims of environmental degradation, natural resource degradation (not allowing women to perform their roles and necessities); however, certain universalizing ideals and
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