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Book Notes: work and canadian society

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York University
Social Science
SOSC 1510
David Langille

FALL 2012 READING NOTES SOSC1510 WORK, INDUSTRY & CANADIAN SOCIETY Chapter One: Capitalism, Industrialization, and Post Industrial Society  Introduction  Most work in bureaucratic organizations today  Industrialization: technical aspects of the accumulation and processing of a society’s resources  Capitalism: Describes key aspects of the economic and social organization of the productive enterprise  Industrial Society: inanimate sources of energy (coal, energy) create a production system which mainly uses technology to process raw materials  Capitalist system of production: small number own and control crafting goods & services; majority have no direct ownership stake in economy & paid a wage to work for those who do  The Origins of Industrial Capitalism  Beginning of capitalism in Europe consisted of 2 periods (mercantile or commercial capitalism [1500s] and industrial capitalism [evolved later) o Mercantile: Merchants & royalty gained huge fortune by trading goods internationally  Beginning signs of the capitalist commercial activity came from feudal society (industrial revolution not yet begun)  Europe was pre-market economy (producer was also consumer) and pre- capitalist economy (wage labour was rare & business class not dominant yet)  Early Capitalism  Industrial Capitalism began early 1700s  Putting-out system: merchants distributed work to peasant households  Gendered division of labour became more pronounced with rise of industrial capitalism  The Great Transformation  Manufacturing surpassed agriculture in its annual output  Agriculture declined while employment in manufacturing and services rose rapidly th  End of 19 century: industrial capitalism dominant system of production in western nations  Wage-labour relationships between capitalists & laborers  Canada’s Industrialization  Industrialization in Canada was behind Britain and the united states  Role was to provide raw material  Focused on staple products (timber & war), developing transportation networks (railways  Work in Pre-industrial Canada FALL 2012 READING NOTES SOSC1510  Large number of immigrants came to Canada, but there were shortages in jobs so they sought employment in the United States (factory jobs and land were more plentiful)  Those in Canada were employed in building the Welland & Rideau canals (transportation megaprojects)  14-16 hours a day, poorly paid, Poverty was widespread  The Industrial Era  Canada’s economy was largely agrarian (1840’s)  First factories were set up in Nova Scotia  Manufacturing became centralized in Ontario and Quebec, result in deindustrialization in the Maritimes  At confederation, half of labour force was in agriculture  By 1900, Canada ranked 7 in production output among the manufacturing countries of the world  Chapter Two: Canadian Employment Patterns & Trends  Most common feature in Canadian newspaper is unemployment rates (updated monthly)  Labour force statistics important for learning about Canadian labour market and developing statistical literacy  Data Sources o Canadian Census: Survey of the entire population of Canada, run by statistics Canada (2006)  Only limited number of questions can be asked due to the huge population  Every 5 years, hard to be up to date  Complete picture of the Canadian labour market at specific points in time & accurately plot historical changes o Labour Force Survey: Monthly, Also by Statistics Canada. Designed to only collect work-related information, more detail.  53,000 households, remain part of sample for six months before replaced  Example: monthly estimates of unemployment and labour force participation rates and description of industries and occupations experiencing job growth/decline  The Demographic Context of Labour Market Change o Aging, cultural diversity and educational attainment o Workface Aging FALL 2012 READING NOTES SOSC1510  Canada’s demographic trends influence many economic and social changes  Population Aging: implications for job opportunities, pensions, work values, and organizational structures  Baby-Boom Generation: 1946-1964, largest generation in Canadian history  Aging of baby booms has altered demographic shape & social structure of Canada  Many baby boomers found careers beginning to plateau in 1990s & 2000s  Most work organizations have pyramid structure  2026, seniors will be 21.4% of total population o Greater Workforce Diversity  For almost four decades, birthrates have been below replacement level, population would have declined unless supplemented by immigration  2006, Canada reached highest level of proportion of immigrants In 75 years (19.4% born outside of country)  1981, 2/3 of immigrants were born in Europe  1991-2001, 58% come from Asia , 20% from Europe  Visible minority groups have increased (2031 will increase 30%) o A Better-Educated Workforce  1975, 66% of females, 68% of males in labour force had only high-school education or less (7% and 10% had university degrees)  2008, 22.2% of men and 24.7% of women had university degrees  Basic literacy & numeracy lacking in small pockets of workforce  2001, 21% of university graduates were in jobs that only required high school education  Underemployment: Mismatch between education and job requirements o Labour force participation trends  Labour Force Participation (LFP): Main indicators of populations economic activity (perspective of paid employment)  Individuals performing unpaid household & child-care work in their home are not included in official labour force calculations  1901, 53% in labour force, 1911, 57%  2008, 67.8% o Gender Differences In Labour Force Participation  16% women in 1901 in paid labour force. 62.7% in 2008
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