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Chapter 9

chapter 9.odt

5 Pages
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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOCI 2510
Professor
David Ellis

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Chapter 9 DevianceCrimeTextbook NotesDeviance is the recognized violation of cultural normscrime the violation of a societys formally enacted criminal lawwhat deviant actions or attitudes whether negative or positive have in common is some element of difference that causes us to think of another person as an outsidersocial control attempts by society to regulate peoples thoughts and behaviour Process is often informal when parents praise or scold children or being made fun ofCriminal justice system a formal response by police courts and prison officials to alleged violations of the lawcases of serious crimes involves itCesare Lombrosotheorized that criminals stand out physically with low foreheads prominent jaws and cheeckbones hairiness unusually long arms Now physical traits distinguish criminals from noncriminalsWilliam Sheldon suggests that body structure might predict criminality He linked criminality to muscular athletic buildsGlueck and Glueck cautioned that a powerful build does not necessarily cause criminalityThe researchers concluded that genetic factors eg defective genes together with environmental factors eg abuse early in life were strong predictors of adult crime and violencemost psychologists believe that personality is shaped primarily by social experience Deviance is then viewed as unsuccessful socializationresearch done by Reckless and Dinitz illustrates the psychological approachthey asked a number of teachers to categorize twelveyearold male students as likely or unlikely to get into trouble with the law the good boy displayed a strong conscience what Freud called superego could handle frustration and identified with cultural norms and values the bad boy had a weaker conscience displayed little torelance of frustration and felt out of step with conventional cultureAs we might expect the good boys went on to have fewer runins with the police than the bad boys Assuming that staying out of trouble meant the control of deviant impulses the autors called their analysis containment theoryboth the biological and psychological approaches view deviance as a trait of individuals but wrongdoing is largely a function of societyThe Social Foundations of DevianceDeviance varies according to cultural normsa thought or action is inherently deviant it becomes deviant only in relation to particular normsPeople become deviant as others define them that way by doing a deviant action whether you are mentall ill or a criminal depends on how others perceive define and respond to it Both norms and the way people define rule breaking involve social powerthe law declared by karl marx is the means by which powerful people protect their interestsDurkheims Basic InsightDeviance affirms cultural values and normsdeviance draws the boundaries of acceptable behaviourResponding to deviance clarifies moral boundaries by defining some individuals as deviant
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