Motivation: Lecture 01, Chapters 1 & 2
> What is motivation?
- Motivation is an internal state or condition (sometimes described as a need, desire, or want) that
serve to activate our energized behaviour. Energy is significant because if the person is motivated
they are typically energized. This was done by Kleinginna and Kleinginna.
> Components of Motivation
- Arousal: you cannot be motivated when you’re in a coma. You need to be aroused
- Direction: There must be a direction for your motivation. If you are motivated to pass your
class, your direction is up or positive.
- Persistence of behaviour: Persistence is significant in motivation. If you persist this shows
motivation. If you fall, get up and eventually learn to walk.
- Energy may be voluntary or involuntary
- Potential energy is stored just in case. You also have kinetic energy.As an analogy, when you
pull an arrow that is the motivation and energy. When the arrow goes that is the target.
> Determinism vs Free will
- Free will: freely select your goals and motives. For example, going on a hunger strike like
Ghandi as means of protest.
- Determined: Motives and goals determined by heredity/genes. For example, your genes may
determine if you are a good dancer.
> Sources of Motivation
- Evolutionary is a definite source that shaped human nature
- Personal history is also a source of motivation, how you were nurtured in life
- Law of hedonic contrast: degree of pleasantness of a stimulus
- Physiological and Neurological Counterpart, reductionism: findings in one science related to
principles in a more basic science
- Psychological variables: Some people need to be nurtured, some need to nurture others. For
example, some people need to belong, need to have friends, they need facilitation.
> Motivation As a Curve: Yerkes Dodson Curve
- When looking at the Yerkes Dudson Curve, it states that the correlation between arousal and
performance as it contains to motivation. If you are too motivated (ex. emotions are really
involved) this may lead to poor performance. Medium level is best performance.
> The Relationship of Motivation and Emotion
- Emotions occur as a result of an interaction between perception of environmental stimuli,
neural/hormonal responses to these perceptions (often labelled feelings), and subjective cognitive
labelling of these feelings (Kleinginna and Kleinginna)
> Facial Expression
- Evidence suggests there is a small core of core emotions (perhaps 6 or 8) that are uniquely associated with specific facial expression (Izrad)
- Asmall number of unique biological responses that are genetically hard-wired to specific facial
expressions. For example, even if you are in a bad mood, just laughing may put you in a good
- The process works in reverse as well (i.e. your physiological functioning) you can do so by
changing your physical appearance.
> Social Motivation
- Socialization helps with your mood. For example a hockey team (or any tem) social motivation
protects their own tribe, family, nation, etc. When y