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Chapter 4

Chapter 4 Summary Brief + detailed summary of chapter 4 of the Sociology: Compass textbook Cdn 3rd Edition

Course Code
SOCI 1010
Timothy Mc Cauley

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Chapter 4: Socialization
Social Isolation and the Crystallization of Self-Identity
- Socialization: process by which people learn their culture including norms, values, and
roles and become aware of themselves as they interact with others
1. Entering and disengaging from a succession of roles
2. Becoming aware of themselves as they interact with others
- Role: behaviour expected of a person occupying a particular position in society
- to paint a picture of the socialization process in its entirety, we must first review the
main theories of how a sense of self develops during early childhood
Theories of Childhood Socialization
- social interaction enables infants to begin developing a self-image or sense of self a set
of ideas and attitudes about who they are as independent beings
- proposed first social-scientific interpretation of the process by which the self emerges
- the id: is the part of the self that demands immediate gratification
- self-image begins to emerge as soon as the id’s demands are denied
- superego: part of the self that acts as a repository of cultural standards; personal
- ego: a psychological mechanism that balances the conflicting needs of the pleasure-
seeking id and restraining superego
- unconscious: part of the self that contains repressed memories we are not normally
aware of
Criticisms of Freud’s arguments:
1. Connections between early childhood development and adult personality are more
complex than Freud assumed
2. Many sociologists criticize Freud for gender bias in his analysis of male and female
3. Sociologists often criticize Freud for neglecting socialization after childhood
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