Chapter 4 Summary Brief + detailed summary of chapter 4 of the Sociology: Compass textbook Cdn 3rd Edition

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Published on 16 Oct 2011
School
York University
Department
Sociology
Course
SOCI 1010
1
Chapter 4: Socialization
Social Isolation and the Crystallization of Self-Identity
- Socialization: process by which people learn their culture including norms, values, and
roles and become aware of themselves as they interact with others
1. Entering and disengaging from a succession of roles
2. Becoming aware of themselves as they interact with others
- Role: behaviour expected of a person occupying a particular position in society
- to paint a picture of the socialization process in its entirety, we must first review the
main theories of how a sense of self develops during early childhood
Theories of Childhood Socialization
Freud
- social interaction enables infants to begin developing a self-image or sense of self a set
of ideas and attitudes about who they are as independent beings
- proposed first social-scientific interpretation of the process by which the self emerges
- the id: is the part of the self that demands immediate gratification
- self-image begins to emerge as soon as the id’s demands are denied
- superego: part of the self that acts as a repository of cultural standards; personal
conscience
- ego: a psychological mechanism that balances the conflicting needs of the pleasure-
seeking id and restraining superego
- unconscious: part of the self that contains repressed memories we are not normally
aware of
Criticisms of Freud’s arguments:
1. Connections between early childhood development and adult personality are more
complex than Freud assumed
2. Many sociologists criticize Freud for gender bias in his analysis of male and female
sexuality
3. Sociologists often criticize Freud for neglecting socialization after childhood
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Document Summary

Freud social interaction enables infants to begin developing a self-image or sense of self a set of ideas and attitudes about who they are as independent beings. Unconscious: part of the self that contains repressed memories we are not normally aware of. I: the subjective and impulse aspect of the self that is present from birth. Me: objective component of the self that emerges as people communicate subolically and learn to take the role of the other. Divided development of thinking skills during childhood into 4 stages: First two years of life, children explore world only through 5 senses (sensorimotor stage) Children begin to think symbolically between ages of 2 and 7, where language and imagination blossom (preoperational stage) Between 7 to 11, children are able to see connections between causes and effects in their environment (concrete operational stage) By about 12, children develop the ability to think more abstractly and critically (formal operational stage)

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